Founds the Jesuit order.
Loyal to the Pope
Reaffirming passionate Catholicism
Militant in Europe
(south and central america)
Religious warfare in Europe
"Holy Roman Empire
Beginning 1530’s Lutherans and Catholics
Peace of Augsburg 1555 - lets kingdom choose religion. Conflict resumes fueled by outside influence Culminates thirty years war 1618 - 1648. Many civilian deaths, destroys holy roman empire
Hapsburgs (austria) - support of Catholic Church & Spain
Calvinists and support of French"
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire"
Spain - ardent defender of Catholicism. Supports Catholics states in Holy Roman Empire. France, long time enemy of spain, supports protestants in Holy Roman Empire. Foreign intervention makes the conflict in Holy Roman Empire worse.
France V.S. Itself
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598). Situation in France, majority Catholic 7-9% Huguenot. 30-40% of the Nobility are Huguenots. Real threat to throne.
England V.S. Itself
Starts with Henry 8th. Founds Anglican church. With Henry’s death Mary (Bloody Mary), his daughter by Catherine of Aragon who is CATHOLIC ascends to the throne. Persecutes Protestants. With Mary’s death, the crown passes to her half sister Elizabeth who is protestant, daughter of Anne Bolyn) 1558-1603, Elizabethan era, englands entrance on World Stage. Shakespeare
So...conflict between Huguenots and Catholics. 1589 - Henry of Navarre ascends to throne. Huguenot, converts to Catholicism - issues the Edict of Nantes (1598). Most conflict ceases, gives Huguenots right to worship.