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US History Test Study Guide

Republican party factions, Stalwart and Half-breed made it difficult to pass significant legislation.

Garfield assassinated in 1881. After this the Pendleton Act was past which created the Civil Service Comission. This reformed the Spoils system which was allowing people of the winning party to get positions they should’t have gotten.

Trusts were used to monopolize markets.

Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration which eliminated middlemen and increased profits.

Rockefeller’s oil company used horizontal integration. They were called Robber Barons

Cornelius Vanderbilt was railroad guy. Wabash case ruled in favor of corrupt railroads.

Interstate Commerce Act in 1887.

National Labor Union was first union in 1866. Collapsed after depression of 1873.

Knights of labor then lived until Haymarket Square Bombing.

Railroad strike, homestead strike, and pullman strike all ended violently.

American Federation of Labor came out the most powerful in late 1880s.

William “boss” tweed promised immigrants public works projects for votes.

People used railroads to go out west and east.

Depression of 1873, McKinley Tariff had high taxes, small farmers formed Populist party in late 1880s. They wanted national income tax, shorter work days, single-term presidents, immigration restrictions, and government control of railroads.

Grover Cleveland defeated Republican Benjamin Harrison and populist James Weaver in 1892.

Cleveland was first to serve two nonconsecutive terms.

Depression of 1893 forced Cleveland to ask JP Morgan for a loan of more than $60 Million. Protesters called Coxey’s Army demanded debt relief. Cleveland could’t help the debt and lost the nomination.

Democrats nominate William Jennings Byran “the Boy Orator”. He demanded free silver. The populists endorsed him. William McKinly was from republicans. McKinley won and killed free silver and populist movement.

Spanish-American War. McKinley is president. Spain and United states are fighting over Cuba. USS Maine exploded and blamed on Spain. America goes to war. The war was very short. They acquire Cuba and other places. Roosevelt helped with his rough riders. The Teller amendment had american forces out of Cuba. The Platt amendment allowed the US navy to establish Guantanamo.

McKinley won the 1900 election. This was his second term. He was assassinated. Roosevelt took office. He was apparently a bully with his Big Stick Diplomacy. This included the Roosevelt Corollary which said that only the united states could interfere with Latin American affairs. The Open Door Notes asked European powers and Japan to let China be more free in terms of trade, probably because it would hurt the US economy otherwise. He also built the Panama Canal.

The Square Deal protected consumers, supported the labor movement, and conserved the nation’s resources.

Elkins act and Hepburn Act regulated railroads and the Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act regulated food stuff. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act, which is an anti-monopoly act.

Taft promised that he would continue with Roosevelt’s progressive policies if they elected him. He won, but he was more traditional and he did not do what he said he would. He fired Gifford Pinchot. He was declared a traitor to progressivism. Taft was nominated again but Roosevelt decided to run against him which put the republicans against each other.

Woodrow Wilson managed to win as a Democrat because the Republican vote was split. He supported the New Freedom, which was against big business. He then signed the Underwood Tariff which lowered the Tariffs even more. And he changed the banking system with the Federal Reserve act. He passed the Clayton Anti-Trust act which was a lot better. He also ordered someone to invade mexico to get a guy Pancho Villa.

Progressives passed legislation to rein in big business, combat corruption, free the government from special interests, and protect the rights of consumers, workers, immigrants, and the poor.

Jane Addams was a social activist.

Chester A Arthur was president after Garfield was assassinated.

Andrew Carnegie was a steel guy. He ended the Homestead strike. He was a philanthropist.

Grover Cleveland served non-consecutive terms.

Populism political ideas and activities that are intended to represent ordinary people's needs and wishes