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Republic: A form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote. 

Patricians: Great Landowners, became Rome’s first ruling class. 

Plebeians: Less wealthy landholders, craftspeople, more of the population. 

Consuls: Two consuls, ran government and led rome to battle. 

Praetors: judge cases in which one or both people were noncitizens? Just another extension of chief officers.

Twelve tables: First code of laws, open for public viewing. 

Law of nations: Natural law, applied to everybody. Innocent until proven guilty. 

Carthage: Enormous trading, western Mediterranean. Richest state in the area. 

Punic war 1: Fight over control of sicily, between romans and Carthage, Carthage loses

Punic war 2: Hannibal (Carthage general) brought soldiers through alps and fought romans.  

Triumvirate: A government by three people with equal power. 

Dictator: Absolute ruler. 

Imperator: Essentially the commander and chief. 

Paterfamilias: The dominant male of the family