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Sumerians - 3500 B.C. - First Civilization 

Political Organization
Economic System
Moral Code
Intellectual Divisions

Social Classes, City States - leaders “lugals” which means big man, Theocracy - Influential Priests
Lots of farming -Wheat Barely, also olives, Timber Metal working, Trade within the city states and in Mediterranean world 
Polytheistic (more than 1 god), Temples (ziggurats), class of priests - dedicated to Gods
3200 B.C. - Cuneiform (Writing), 60 based number system, literature - epic poem “Gilgamesh”  

Lower and Upper Egypt converse under King Menes in 3100 B.C. 

Sumerians - 3500 B.C. ---- Akkadians invade 2340 B.C. And live until 2100 B.C. 

One city state gains dominance...Babylon under King Hammurabi 1792 B.C. - 1750 B.C. (first jewish people same time) 

Important because - Hammurabi Code (First set of written laws that apply to everyone) “Eye for an eye” Social Inequality”

Other invaders….

Ottomans until 1918 (WW1) 
British & French 

Then 2003