1763 - end of french and indian war. Proclamation of 1763 limits colonial expansion.
writs of assistance - allow customs to search any building or ship
Sugar act - hard to maintain american trade, no trial for smugglers
Stamp act - required americans to buy certain paper for british
The british essentially kept trying to make money off of the colonists and the colonists would get angry. The boston massacre was used to get the public behind an affront against the british.
Tea act made some british tea company have priority and the americans were upset so they dumped the tea. England shut down the boston harbor so that they could be repaid.
In response, Americans met at the first continetal congress 1774 and boycott british goods and restore friendly relations.
1775, battle of lexington, shot heard round the world, Concord mass. They had the second continental congress and they asked for the king to address that they were being mistreated in the Olive Branch Petition.
The second cont congress chose george washington, to be in charge of the men who fought Britain.
Made continental army. Continued to fight britain. Technically the british won bunker hill but just barely and it felt like the americans won. july 2nd, 1776, declaration of independence by Thomas Jefferson.
Battle of Saratoga in New York, 1777, big win for americans, showed france that they could win. France started to help americans.
In 1781, the americans fought at Yorktown against cornwallis until 1783 with the treaty of paris which ended the war.
Following this, the articles of confederation called for a national government to be formed above the state governments. It didn’t have much power. it could’t function like it was because it could’t form an army, make taxes, basic diplomacy. Shay’s rebellion showed them that the national government really wasn’t strong enough. The Constitutional convention met in phili and popped out the constitution. Washington set precedents as the first president on how to handle the presidency. The northwest ordinance shows how the states would be handled and the rights of their inhabitants. Federalist and anti-federalists were formed, the former in support of a powerful federal government and the latter in form of the opposite. Hamilton, under washington, made economic federalism which meant that the national government got any debt that the state governments had. He also made the bank of the US. Hamilton overstepped national powers. There was a lot of division among the regions (south, north, etc). Washington left in 1797. He wanted to be more isolationist, and avoid unnecessary wars, he also wanted to stop the formation of political parties, and he was against the division of the country between north and south. Constitutional interpretation came into effect with the formation of the national bank. The federalist papers were arguments for the constitution and against anti-federalists. By Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Jefferson originally interpreted the constitution strictly but went to loose for the louisianna purchase.
small states New Jersey plan, large states virginia.
The first two parties (federalists) and (democratic-republicans) were formed as loose constructionists and strict respectively. The federalists were headed by hamilton. The DP by Jefferson. Apparently the next supporter of federalism was John Adams who only made the enemy party DP stronger with the 1798 sedition act.
Adams was washingtons vice and he followed him as the president. The XYZ affair was when some ambassador went to make france feel better but the people who received him wanted a bribe. There was fighting between america and france on ships. Finally adams said enough. Adams got power hungry and wanted to make the feds even more in control. He passed the alien acts which made it take longer for immigrants to get citizenship. President could also expel any alien that was dangerous. sedition act was passed as well which banned all forms of public expression critical of the president or Congress.
Virginia and Kentucky resolutions voided the sedition and alien acts. Adams appointed new justices including John marshall.
Jefferson went against his strict constructionalism for the Louisiana purchase. Jefferson sent lewis and clark out to explore the territory. Jefferson passed the embargo act because a british ship had taken americans to serve in their army. The embargo act prevented americans to trade with britain and france but this was bad because they americans needed them more than they needed us. Jefferson hurt the economy.
Madison is then elected president in 1812. He was a big author of the bill of rights. non-intercourse act gets rid of the embargo act. The war hawks who wanted to expand the united states pressured madison into declaring war on britain in 1812. This was in order to get some of the troops out of the Louisiana territory. New england states against the embargo act and the war of 1812 because they wanted to trade with britain. The Hartford Convention The considered succeeding from the union. They wanted the government to compensate them for the loss of profits. They wanted the states to vote about war declaration. Wanted to strike three fifths compromise. 1815 biggest battle of new orleans by andrew jackson. Led to nationalism and pride over the war because the battle was so great.