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Plant Notes

Angiosperm - Vascular, seed-producing flowering and fruit bearing plants, in which the seeds are enclosed in an ovule within the ovary. This is the most diverse group of plants with around 250,000 species.

Bryophytes - Three groups of plants (the liverworts, hornworts, and mosses) that lack vascular tissue and move water and dissolved nutrients by diffusion.

Fern - A primitive vascular seedless plant that reproduces with spores.

Flower - The part of an angiosperm that contains the reproductive structures; it consists of a supporting stem with modified leaves (the petals and sepals) and usually contains both male and female reproductive structures.

Fruit - The mature ovary of a flower that houses seeds for dispersal.

Hyphae - Long strings of cells that make up the mycelium of a multicellular fungus.

Mycorrhizae - Root fungi - symbiotic associations in which the fungus receives sugar from the plant, and in return the fungus transfers nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil to the plant.

NADPH - A molecule (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) that is a high- energy electron carrier involved in photosynthesis, which stores energy by accepting high-energy protons; this molecule is formed when the electrons released from the splitting of water are passed to NADP+.

Nodule - In plant roots, a round lump containing plant cells and nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Ovary - An enclosed chamber at the base of the carpel of a flower that contains the ovule.

Plants - Members of the kingdom Plantae, which are multicellular eukaryotes having cell walls made up primarily of cellulose, contain true tissues, and produce their own food by photosynthesis; they are sessile and most inhabit terrestrial environments.

Thylakoid - Structure within a chloroplast where the chlorophyll is located

In most cases, the relationship between roots and fungi in mycorrhizae can best be described as: symbiosis

Of the groups mentioned below, the fungi are most closely related to: animals