World History Outline
Thesis: The philosophies of Plato and Aristotle were based on a similar idea, however they mainly disagreed on how to reach an Archetype (the perfect form).
Introduction (background paragraph):
Topic Sentence: Describe the original basis on which they disagreed.
It all started with Plato when he said “there is a higher world of eternal unchanging Forms which has always existed. We are aware of what is what, that a tree is a tree, because it is a reflection of the perfect type.
You can imagine this by putting your perfect idea of a tree between a wall and fire, we know that a tree is a tree because we can see that shadow on the wall.
Aristotle: Second, taught by Plato, disagreed saying that we form this archetype through experience
Then state thesis
Topic Sentence: Plato, describe Plato and his idea of this in full detail.
He came before Aristotle, state when he lived, where he lived, anything about him
He was fascinated by the question of “what is real?” we know a tree is a tree because it is the reflection of the real form.
His idea on government, he believed a republic was ideal, he didn’t like democracy.
He thought there should a philosopher king
Believed that men and women should have the same education and equal access to all positions.
He divided people into three basic groups: philosopher kings, warriors who protected society, and the third was everyone else, people not driven by wisdom or courage but by desire.
Topic Sentence: Aristotle, describe Aristotle and his idea of Archetypes and Government.
He came after Plato, he was his Pupil, state when he lived, where he lived, anything about him
He was disagreeing with his master
He believed that we would form the perfect idea of a tree in your mind by experience, everyones archetype is different.
He wrote on many subjects
He looked at the constitutions of 158 states
He came up with three ideal forms of government: monarchy, aristocracy, constitutional government.
Continue on his ideas of government
He was very interested in things that mainly involved observation and investigation.
He wrote about many subjects including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physics.
Topic Sentence: Explain all of the similarities and differences these two share, their views of political philosophy and views of Archetypes.
Similarities: One recognizable similarity: Aristotle’s belief of Archetypes was based on Pluto’s idea of ideal Forms. Another similarity: they both wanted to find an effective form of government that would rationally direct human affairs.
Differences: They disagreed on a many number of things, Aristotle did not accept Plato’s theory of ideal forms.
He did not seek an ideal state but tried to find the best form of government by analyzing existing governments.
Plato was considered to be the greatest philosopher in Western civilization.
Topic Sentence: Explain the affects of both Platos and Aristotles effects on the Western world.
Plato had more of an effect on the western world.
“Until the seventeenth century, science in the Western world remained largely based on Aristotle's ideas.” (Stokes, 207)
“Plato had a direct influence on Christian theology” (Stokes, 207)
“According to Plato, though there are many individual horses, cats and dogs, they are all made in the image of the one universal form of ‘the horse’, ‘the car’, ‘the dog’, and so on. Likewise, just as there are many men, all men are made in the image of the universal ‘form of man’. The influence of this idea on later Chrisian though, in which man is made in the image of god, is only one of many ways in which Plato had a direct influence on Christian theology.” (Philip Stokes, 206-207)
Aristotle did not really have a major contribution to Western Society, he made minor contribution to a variety of subjects.
Do more research: “How did they have an effect on the western world?”
Topic Sentence: Summarize, thesis statement in different way. Sum up the answer of the question again in a simpler way.
Plato’s Theory of Forms, however, was not restricted to material objects. He also thought there were ideal forms of universal or abstract concepts, such as beauty, justice, truth and mathematical concepts such as number and class. Indeed, it is in mathematics that Plato’s first influence is still felt strongly today. The Theory of forms also underlies Plato’s most contentious and best known work, The Republic. In a quest to understand the nature and value of justice, Plato offers a vision of a utopian society led by an elite class of guardians who are trained from birth for the task of ruling. The rest of society is divided into soldiers and the common people. In the republic, the ideal citizen is one who understands how best they can use their talents to the benefit of the whole society, and bends unerringly to that task. There is little thought of personal freedom or individual rights in Plato’s republic, for everything is tightly controlled by the guardians for the good of the state as a whole. ALL FROM 207-208 Philip Stokes.
Speilvogel et al. World History. Glencoe-McGraw Hill. New York, New York. 2005.
Stokes, Philip. Philosophy - The Great Thinkers. Arcturus Publishing Limited. London. 2007.
The New Oxford American Dictionary, First Edition, Elizabeth J. Jewell and Frank R. Abate (editors), 2192 pages, September 2001, Oxford University Press
Everything not quoted or cited is from textbook.