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Age of Pericles: Under Pericles, who was a dominant figure in Athenian politics around 500 B.C., Athens expanded its new empire abroad. At the same time, democracy flourished at home. This period of Athenian and Greek history, which historians have called Age of Pericles, saw the height of Athenian power and brilliance.

Archeology: The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts and other physical remains. Used to fill the gaps that written history has left us, using artifacts. It is significant because it has revealed several unknowns that would otherwise remain.

Aristotle: Greek philosopher and scientist. A student of Plato and tutor to Alexander the Great, he founded a school outside Athens. He is one of the most influential thinkers in the history of Western thought. His surviving works cover a vast range of subjects, including logic, ethics, metaphysics, politics, natural science, and physics. 300’s BC

Bantu: A family of languages spoken in central and southern africa; a member of any group of african peoples who speak that language. Praised for the Bantu migration which was one of the most significant migrations within the past few thousand years. First in sub-Saharan africa to have agriculture, spread language of Bantu. 1000 BC

Brahman: In hinduism, the ultimate reality underlying all phenomena. The great world soul. Every living thing is part of Brahman. The holy or sacred power that is the source and sustainer of the universe.

Byzantine Empire: Eastern, Greek half of Roman empire which survived the fall of Rome in AD 395 until its own defeat by the Ottoman Turks in AD 1453. Constantinople is the Byzantine empires capital.

Carthage: an ancient city state on the north African coast that was founded by the Phoneicians. It fought with Rome during the Punic Wars. It was finally destroyed by the Romans in 146 B.C. It was later raised by the arabs.

Caste System: A social structure in which you are born into. If you are good in your life your spirit moves up on the system. It is significant because it was the way the Hindus believed things were up until very recently.

Centuriate assembly: It was the most important assembly in ancient Rome. It was had the ability to declare war and appeal high courts. Where chosen

City-State: An independent, self-governing city that incorporated its surrounding territory, including smaller towns and villages. Significant because it was how many great civilizations ruled. The Holy Roman Empire was a collage of city states.

Clovis: King Clovis was the first frankish king. After he converted to Christianity around 500AD he ties the frankish people to the church, extending the churches power. This begins the great influence of the Church on government in Europe.

Cortez and Pizzaro: Both funded by the Spanish king and queen, were sent to bring back God, Gold, Glory. Cortes defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico. Pizzaro came later and conquered the Incas, both of them desecrating and completely destroying evidence of the two civilizations. 1500’s AD

Cuneiform: The first system of writing in human history, developed in ancient Mesopotamia, which used a reed to impress wedge-shaped marks onto the surface. Those that remain are typically impressed on clay tablets. Also used in Persia.

Dao:Chinese religion over 4000 years old. There is no personal god, the closest thing being the Tao, which is a supreme force which underlies change. Go with the flow, with what you feel is right. A lot of belief in Nature Magic. All about balance.

Edict of Milan: Milan, Edict of Milan is permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire. Created by Constantine in 313 B.C.

Feudalism: the system of relations between the members of the lords or knights of the upper class. They have peasants working on the land and helping the lords who were in control of the land. During the middle ages. Important because it helped ensure a lack of development during these times. No real allowance for creation.

!!!!!!!Five Pillars of Islam: Are the five major practices of the faithful Muslim: Confession the Allah is the only God and that Mohammed is his messenger; Prayer according to a particular ritual; Fasting; Giving, especially almsgiving; and the pilgrimage to Mecca if health and circumstances permit

!!!!!!!!Four noble truths: One of the basic concepts in all schools of Buddhism, they are the truth that suffering arises from impermanence; The truth that ignorance is the attachment to impermanent objects; The truth that suffering can be overcome by developing an understanding of the ultimate reality;

Gold Salt trade: the exchange of gold for salt in the Sahara. From the salt rich village of Taghaza to gold of Ghana empire.


Who: Babylonian King

Where: Babylonian empire

When: 1750 BC

Sig: Wrote Hammerabi wrote ; first written law.

Harappa and Mohenjo Daro: a city in the Indus Valley which thrived between 2500 and 1500 BC, one of the first and most productive sites of excavation of that civilization.& was one of the largest city-settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization of south Asia

Hellenistic Era: Term describing the period of Greek civilization from 323 BC (death of Alexander the Great) to 31 BC it means, relating to or characteristic of the classical Greek civilization

Hieroglyphics: An ancient Egyptian system of writing, usually taught by the priests, using symbols and pictures to convey ideas and language.

Historiography: studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. Broadly speaking, historiography examines the writing of history and the use of historical methods, drawing upon such elements such as authorship, sourcing, interpretation, style, bias, and audience. …

Holy Roman Empire: Enduring from AD 800 to 1806, official successor under papal authority to the Roman Empire. The title king of the Romans, first given to Charlemagne. By the Pope. Which consisted of 300 small city states.

Huitzilopochtli: is thought to have been a real person who became the supreme Aztec god on his death. Huitzilopochtli, which means ‘hummingbird of the south.

Julius Caesar: was a Roman military and political leader. He played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

Kush/Meroe: The Egyptian name for the land south of their territory. Kush began at the first cataract of the Nile in southern Egypt and extended to the sixth cataract, near the modern Sudanese city of Khartoum. lacustrine Having to do with lakes.

Mahabharata: Hindu epic poem relating the story of the battles between the Pandawa brothers and their cousins, the Korawa brothers.

Mandate of Heaven: Created around 1027 BC to justify the Zhou taking control of the empire, this was the idea that the king rules as long as they ruled justly.

Mansa Musa: the emperor of Mali, famous for his pilgrimage to Mecca in 1300 AD.

Mound builders: the Native American cultures of the Ohio and Mississippi River They built mounds, large hills made of earth.

Neolithic Revolution: The introduction of agriculture, domesticating animals, this leads to the development of human civilazation. It is significant because it allowed spare time leading to discoveries & inventions. 8000 BC - 1000 BC

Norman Invasion: The Norman conquest of England began in 1066 AD with the invasion of the Kingdom of England by the troops of William, Duke of Normandy ("William the Conqueror"), and his victory at the Battle of Hastings. This resulted in Norman control of England, which was firmly established during the next few years. This is significant because it unites England, as it’s own country. Places England under French influence. Integration of British and French royal lines, politics.

Olmecs: A Mesoamerican civilization that flourished around 1200 CE. Achievements include irrigation, a simple calendar and writing system, and small cities. 1200 BC - 600s BC

Oral History: collecting interviews of ordinary people to get their stories about their participation in events, which fills gaps in written records and tells of those who are often absent from official histories.

Pax Romana: A long period from Augstus to Marcus Aurelius when the Roman empire was stable and relatively peaceful. “Pax Romana” means roman peace lasted 100 years 1st century AD and BC

Peloponnesian War: A disastrous war (431– 404 BC) between the rival states of Athens and Sparta and their respective allies, ending with Sparta's victory.

Plebeians and Patricians: Plebeians: Ordinary citizens; originally those Roman families that could not trace their relationship to one of the major Roman clans. Patricians: Upper class Roman citizens.

Phoenicians: Mesopotamian, founded Carthage.

Qur'an: the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina. It’s the highest authentic authority in islam.

Realm of Ideals: The Divine Light striking the realm of Ideals is partly refracted, and then reflected above the mind-mesh. This produces the Ideas in the realm of Pure Light, so that their Nature is Light; also they are purely God, taking on what might be called the Intelligent Aspect of God.

Sati: a woman who immolates herself on her husbands pyre becomes sati. The word is sometimes used to refer to the act, or practise of sati (self-immolation).

Secular: worldly: characteristic of or devoted to the temporal world as opposed to the spiritual world; "worldly goods and advancement"; "temporal possessions of the church"

Shiia and Sunni: Shia: A member of the smaller of the two great divisions of Islam. Sunni: A follower of the larger of the two primary denominations of Islam. Both islamic, a lot of historic conflicts.

Siddhartha: The Founder of Buddhism, also known as buddha and the mystic and founder of the Buddhism philosophy from India who is worshipped as a god. Lived from 563-480.

Silk Road: The silk road consisted of a few over-land trading routes between China and the West (Europe). The well-traveled paths run from China through Afghanistan and Iran to Southern Europe.

!!!!!!!!Socratic Method: a method of teaching by question and answer; used by Socrates to elicit truths from his students. Using questions to release the information inside the student.

Swahili: a language widely spoken in East Africa. Born of the hybridization of the Arabic and Bantu cultures, it was the language of the traders in East Africa, and spread along the routes of trade

Terrace Farming: The cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese, and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow enough food for their large populations.

Tigris and Euphrates: The Tigris is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Turkey through Iraq.

Timbuktu: a city in central Mali near the Niger river; formerly famous for its gold trade. Well known for it’s distance and isolation from other civilizations.

Torah: A Hebrew expression that refers specifically to "the law," meaning the five books of Moses. In a much broader sense it means spiritual instruction or teaching.

Twelve Tables of Roman Law: The first written code of Roman law, passed about 450 BC. Previously laws had been handed down orally from generation to generation. The establishment of a written code was a landmark in Roman legal history. It applied to only to roman citizens, as their empire expanded they adopted more citizens.

Vizier: The chief minister of Egypt answerable only to the pharaoh. He was responsible for the day-to-day running of the country. In the New Kingdom there were two viziers - one for Upper Egypt and one for Lower Egypt. The position became less important in the Late Period.

Warrior Aristocracy: The development of Feudalism as the political institutution of European Medieval civilization had determined initially that the class structure would consist of a warrior aristocracy, which ruled as a privileged elite, and a peasantry which farmed the land.

Zoroastrianism: The religion of the Persians before their conversion to Islam. According to tradition, it was founded by Zoroaster in the 6th or 7th century BCE. Its principles, contained in the Zend-Avesta, include belief in an afterlife and the continuous struggle of the universal spirit of good, Ormazd, with the universal spirit of evil, Ahriman.


1066 - Norman Invasion, France invades England.

1453 - Printing Press Invented, Byzantine Empire Falls (to Ottoman Turks), France and England have more of an alliance,

1100 - First crusaders,