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Creating an Empire

Muhammad kicked out of Mecca in 622 AD - goes to Medina.
In 630 AD - Returns to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers.
Conquers city, Islamic empire is formed with Muhammad as religious & political ruler. 
At Muhammad's death, 632, his father in law becomes Caliph. 

The Split

In 661 AD - political rivalry 
Umayyads vs Hussein & followers (believe only descendants of Ali (Muhammad’s son in law can be Caliph) 


Accept Umayyad rulers. Usually less strict adherence to Qur'an 

Shiias / Shiites

Usually more strict / literal interpretation of Qur’an (Iraq & Iran are majority Shiia) 

Very quickly, Ummayads built an empire. 
	By 661 - All of Egypt, Mesopotamia, & Persia have been conquered. 

By 750, North Africa & Spain + Western India are added. 

In 750 AD - Abbasid Dynasty takes over … Rules until 1258 (Mongols conquer)

Why spread so quickly?
	Void left by Rome 
	Religious tolerance Economic & political unity was provided. 

Only around 1000 AD did the empire start to divide (too big - local autonomy…)

Spain, Morocco, Egypt all break away 

In 1071 - Seljuk Turks take over Asia Minor

1100s - 1400’s were a time of Conflict. (Waves of crusades)
1099 - First Crusade arrives in Middle East. 

1258 - Mongol Invasion

Rise of Ottoman Turks late 1300’s (defeat Byzantines in 1453) 

The ottoman turks build an empire that lasts until world war I 

Political Organization

Empire - Theocracy
	Centralized / Federal (Like Egypt or Incan) 

Caliph is leader - divided into provinces, each had a local governor, also a Vizier In each province to assist Governor.