Creating an Empire
Muhammad kicked out of Mecca in 622 AD - goes to Medina.
In 630 AD - Returns to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers.
Conquers city, Islamic empire is formed with Muhammad as religious & political ruler.
At Muhammad's death, 632, his father in law becomes Caliph.
In 661 AD - political rivalry
Umayyads vs Hussein & followers (believe only descendants of Ali (Muhammad’s son in law can be Caliph)
Accept Umayyad rulers. Usually less strict adherence to Qur'an
Shiias / Shiites
Usually more strict / literal interpretation of Qur’an (Iraq & Iran are majority Shiia)
Very quickly, Ummayads built an empire.
By 661 - All of Egypt, Mesopotamia, & Persia have been conquered.
By 750, North Africa & Spain + Western India are added.
In 750 AD - Abbasid Dynasty takes over … Rules until 1258 (Mongols conquer)
Why spread so quickly?
Void left by Rome
Religious tolerance Economic & political unity was provided.
Only around 1000 AD did the empire start to divide (too big - local autonomy…)
Spain, Morocco, Egypt all break away
In 1071 - Seljuk Turks take over Asia Minor
1100s - 1400’s were a time of Conflict. (Waves of crusades)
1099 - First Crusade arrives in Middle East.
1258 - Mongol Invasion
Rise of Ottoman Turks late 1300’s (defeat Byzantines in 1453)
The ottoman turks build an empire that lasts until world war I
Empire - Theocracy
Centralized / Federal (Like Egypt or Incan)
Caliph is leader - divided into provinces, each had a local governor, also a Vizier In each province to assist Governor.