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Catherine the great pretended to be enlightened. 


Maria-Theresa 1740
Joseph (son), ruled along side her many attempts to be “enlightened” created a parliamentary assembly, invested in public works & welfare...but ultimately was perceived as weak.

3 stages. Moderate 1789-1792
	     Radical    1792-1794
	     Directory  1795-1799

Long Term

Relics of Feudalism stratified social structure
3 estates tax
Enlightenment Ideas
Absolutist rulers with no concept of people
Religious Conflict

Short Term
France is Bankrupt, people are starving - why? Because france was constantly at war. War of Austrian succession, seven years war, American revolution. 
Calling of Estates general, (meeting of the three estates). Raise taxes on the third estate (the people who were starving).

War of Austrian Succession (1749-1748) 
France & Prussia vs England & Austria

Seven Years War (1756-1763) 
Russia, France, & Austria vs England & Prussia

American Revolution (1776-1783)
France supplied and aided the Americans because it was against England.

Timeline of the Revolution
Estates General, May 1789
	Hadn’t been called for over 100 years. People were excited! Move to democracy? Louis proposed raising taxes on the 3rd estate. 
Vote, 3rd estate loses and must be taxed. 

3rd Estate rejects this solution, and forms the National Assembly, meeting in early June, discussing a constitution. June 20th, national assembly is locked out of meeting place. So Tennis Court Oath.
	Pledge to defend the democratic ideals and fight for the institution of a constitution in france. French people, poor people of Paris. July 14th 1789, storm the Bastille release political prisoners, and March on Versailles.


Kept king louis as prisoners in Paris. 
National assembly governs
Uneasy peace 
Write a constitution 
Church officials to be elected
Men over 25 who paid over a certain amount of taxes could vote.


Spring 1792. 
France goes to war with Austria. 
Because Austria wants to reinstate the king. 
Already bankrupt, fall further into economic crisis - Starving.
Mob of urban poor takes over paris and calls it the paris commune, who are ruled by the Jacobins. Politically active middle class citizens.

   George Danten
   Jean-Paul Marat
   Maximilien Robespiere.

2 Factions develop 

Girodins                       vs              Mountain
Keep king alive			 Kill king
Jan. 1793, king tries to escape, Mountain wins, louis executed. 

January 1793 - King is executed. Reign of Terror. “committee for Public Safety” - organization controlled by Robespierre. 

Purpose to execute anyone who didn’t want to be ruled. In reign of terror...45,000 people were killed. Many were nobles and clergy. Tried to completely control society, alter french. Abolish the church, confiscate church lands. “enemies of the revolution.”
“The republic of virtue.” -Churches are “temples of reason”
	Enlightenment philosophers worshiped like gods. 
Changing the calendar, metric system (only good change) 
Closed bars, didn’t like drinking. War was going badly for france. Capture the Netherlands...but losing men & money. 1794 0 war effort slow. Robespierre is still killing people...national assembly arrests & guillotined him. (slicing head off) 

End of Radical Stage

Directory stage 

Corrupt, ineffective. 
Large, bicameral legislative body.
	5 member “directory” 
End reign of terror…
		Easily overthrown in a coup detat by napoleon bonaparte 1799.