All Dynasties 1750 B.C. - 1911 A.D.
1750 B.C. - 1027 B.C.
Development of Chinese writing.
Trade in luxuries Jade, Silk, Ivory
Social Structure, Aristocracy, Merchants would travel. Peasant - Farmers, Slaves
Ruled by Empires, the Shang family as well as the Warrior Aristocracy, people considered better than the public.
1027 B.C. - 221 B.C.
Conflict in 800s B.C.
400s B.C. Fall of the Warring States
Political Organization, Emperor and Aristocracy.
Widespread use of iron and iron weapons
Confucianism and Daoism develop
Qin Took power in 221 B.C. - he dies his two son rule shortly 206 B.C. end of Qin
Qin was a very powerful ruler
Centralized China -got rid of the power or aristocracy
Reformed the bureaucracy - merit based appointments
Started to build the great wall for protection from Mongols
Building canals and roads - great for military and trade and communication
Ruled with philosophy of legalism
He was hated for his philosophy of legalism
206 B.C. - 220 A.D.
Great period of success
Silk Road trading with Rome
China very wealthy
Continue building great wall
Continue building canals and roads
Merit based system in bureaucracy
Expanded influence from Vietnam to Mongolia
Sui (589 AD - 618 AD)
Burst of military expedition
Conquer huge area
Built Grand Canal
Wendi’s son Yangdi is killed.
Tang Dynasty (618 AD - 906 AD)
In control of a smaller area
Tributary system (not rivers)
Forced smaller states to pay tribute or be invaded
Founder Li Yuan (woman ruler)
Expand chinese influence over the rest of east asia
Less woman rights
Buddhist influence (causes conflict)
Advanced bureaucracy & civil service revived
Public works projects
Divide into districts and provinces
Bureau of Censors (Bureaucratic ministry to oversee the bur.
Empress Wu (690 - 705 CE) Only female leader of China ever. Ruthless strangled daughter
Tang Dynasty Continued
She dies, conflict arises with Buddhism
700’s & 800’s per2secution of Buddhist
Conflict leads to decline of Tang
906 - 960 Civil War
Song Empire (960 - 1279 AD)
Emperor Taizu founds Song Dynasty
Dominant empire in the 1100s
Destroyed by Mongols
Increased transportation through smaller canals.
Built an army of 1 million soldiers
Under pressure from Mongols for over 50 years
Fell to Kublai Khan (Genghis’ Grandson)
Neo-Confucianism (re-worked, religiousized Confucianism)
Stressed staying in your place
Women are Oppressed
Yuan Dynasty (Mongol Rule) (1279 - 1368)
Mongols kicked out the Chinese from government Bureaucracy created 2 classes of people - Mongols ruling over Native Chinese
Mongols & Chinese forbidden to marry
Chinese forbidden to learn or use mongol script
Closed chinese universities
So…Mongol rule does not influence China
Less rigid social structure
More rights for woman
Former scholar-gentry class oppressed by Mongols … many up risings
Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644)
Zhu Yuanzhang (Emperor Hongwu)
Founder of Ming Dynasty
Led a guerilla resistance to Mongols
Built up an army (very popular) Revolution in 1368 - establishes himself as emperor.
Ming Dynasty - Chinese Renaissance
No taxes on farmland
Funded scholarships so peasants could attend universities
Public works projects
Economic & Population boom
Commerce increases trade with Europe
Along with economic prosperity increased literacy
Increase of disposable income leads to increased patronage of the arts
Birth of chinese novel (ie “monkey”) lots of portraits of commoners.
From 1405 - 1423, China gets into the exploration game. Zhenghe - great explorer, led 7 expeditions
During Ming Era Neo Confucianism
Everyone has their place, son - father, wife - husband, student - teacher, subject - ruler.
In 1644 ming falls, to invaders from Manchuria Qing dynasty lasts until 1911
1750 BCE - 1911CE