A collection of chapter review answers for Civics. Some answers may not make sense without the context of the question.

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1.	A display of love for one’s country: Patriotism 
2.	The study of the rights and duties of a citizens: Civics (yay!)
3.	A plan for making and spending money: Budget
4.	Noncitizens living in a nation: Illegal Aliens? or visa peoples, immigrant could be both 4,5 
5.	People who move permanently : Aliens! (Like Brielle!)
6.	A government in which citizens choose a smaller group to govern on their behalf: representative democracy-republic
7.	a legal process to obtain citizenship: naturalization 
8.	to send an alien or immigrant back to his or her country: rejection (wasn’t able to find)
9.	the use of violence against civilians to achieve a political goal : terrorism (not a good definition)
10. the course of government action to achieve community goals : public policy
11.What three levels of government exist in the united states, and which is the highest? In order of power: Federal, State, Local
12.What are the primary functions of government? To oppress the people (jk), to maintain order and organization as well as regulation to groups that be unable to function otherwise. 
13. In what ways can a person become a citizen of the unites states? You can be born here or go through naturalization in which they stuff you with america stuff (kidding), you are tested for knowledge of basic american history. 
14. Legal aliens do not have the right to vote
15. The two largest ethnic groups are African american, and hispanic. 
16. African americans differ from those who came before 1808 in that they were forced and sold as slaves. 
17. The USCIS is responsible for maintaining and regulating the amount of immigrants into the united states and monitoring them after and during naturalization. 
18. When you state the united states is a service economy you are implying that the united states provided non-manufactured goods, such as software or facilitation of goods rather than producing them 
19.If all immigration were to stop, the entire basis of which we founded our country would be violated. We need to accept all who want to live here. 
20. An example of order and security would be the protection of citizens from terrorism, public service would be providing schools, and guiding community would be supporting peace and prosperity to all countries. 
21. The main idea is that the entirety of our population consists of immigrants. 
22. The uneven growth will affect the distribution of goods and finance in the stagnant areas. 
23. These men look down on the immigrant because he is poor, although the rich men do not realize they also used to be like him. 
24 - impossible, 25 - I don’t have a computer - BAM! WHAT!

^--- Now that is colloquial writing. 

1.	the idea of popular sovereignty is represented by the right to vote. 
2.	feds favored ratification of the new constitution 
3.	the great compromise settled the question of whether the virginia plan or the new jersey plan would be adopted.
4.	the first 10 amendments to the constitution are called the bill of rights
5.	the issue of how to count enslaved americans for the purpose of representation in congress was settled by the three fifths compromise
6.	the idea of dividing power among different levels of government is found in the principle of separation of powers
7.	those who opposed the constitution because it gave to much power to the national government were called anti-federalist 
8.	no state law can conflict with the us constitution because of the supremacy clause
9.	Checks and balances are most closely associated with the principle of separation of powers
10.the notion that governments draw their powers from the consent of the governed is popular sovereignty 
11. Originally, the purpose of the meeting was to establish interstate laws or something. 
12.they decided to collude because they didn’t want the publics input (forget that people in power bs) 
13.The delegates debated the virginia plan and the new jersey plan. 
14.the three fifths compromise was to compensate for the unrepresented slaves, so they were represented but not as a whole person. 
15.The first three articles set the limit on the government and established each level. 
16.The first ten amendments are called the bill of rights and they limit the governments power/ 
17. the fundamental principles of the constitution are the established rights of the people or something. 
18.expressed powers are powers that the federal government has over the states, reserved powers are powers that the state has the right to and the government cannot infringe on, and the concurrent are those that both levels can regulate 
19. The primary revenue for the state government is intergovernmental revenue, sales tax and employee recruitment. 

1.	Presidents power to kill a bill if congress does not address it within ten days is a pocket veto. 
2.	Government projects and grants that benefit the home district of a member of congress is pork barrel project 
3.	System that gives most desirable committee assignments to members of Congress who have served the longest is seniority 
4.	dividing a state into odd-shaped election districts to benefit a particular party or group is gerrymandering 
5.	the part of the constitution that gives congress the authority to do whatever is necessary and proper to carry out its expressed powers
6.	people from a legislative district are constituents 
7.	permanent committee of congress are standing committees 
8.	Court order guaranteeing a person who is arrested the right to appear before a judge in a court of law is habias corpus. 
9.	tactic for defeating a bill in the Senate by talking until the bill’s sponsor withdraws it is filibuster.
10. person who tries to persuade government officials to support a particular group or position is a lobbiest 
11. The pro tempore has more power because they are usually the vice president. 
12. Congressmen volenteer and the positions are voted on 
13. oversight and investigation, approval of presidential appointments
14. can’t suspend habius corpus, aero de facto and bill of the atainder 
15. the three major jobs of congress are to pass bills, check the executive branch and declare war
16. you must be 25, a citizen for 7 years, and reside the district you represent, you must be 30 years and live in the state you are running for
17. veto, be overturned by 2/3 vote, pocket veto, without present president the bill becomes law
18. Because it allows congress to make progress
23. congress could tax things that it believes are detrimental to the health of the people and thus the health of the nation. like taxing cigarettes 

1.	A rule issued by the president that has the force of law is an executive order
2.	People chosen by the president to fill a certain post because they were important supporters of the president’s election campaign are political appointees 
3.	A pardon toward a group of people is amnesty 
4.	secretaries of the executive departments, the vice president, and other top officials who help the president make decisions and policy is the cabinet. 
5.	Members of a party chosen in each state to formally elect the president and vice president is electoral college 
6.	a government’s plan for dealing with other nations is foreign policy
7.	the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobs.
8.	an agreement prohibiting trade embargo 
9.	a business owned and operated by the government to provide services to the public is a government corporation.
10. the practice of government employment based upon competitive examination and merit is civil servant system. 
11. the number of each state’s electoral votes by population 
12. If both the president and the vice president died the speaker of the house would become president
13. congress has the power to declare war 
14. The presidents can gain support in the senate 
15. FDR created the EOP
16. The office of management and budget has the most responsibility for preparing the federal budget.
17. The president appoints them 
18. assassination of president garfield

1.	An earlier model upon which judges may base decisions is precedent 
2.	the lowest level of courts of the federal judiciary are federal district courts
3.	the power of the supreme court to say whether any federal, state, or local law is unconstitutional is judicial review. 
4.	a courts authority to hear and decide cases is jurisdiction 
5.	the opinion written by a justice who votes with the majority but for different reasons is concurring opinion. 
6.	a latin term, which means “let the decision stand” is stare decisis 
7.	a law that is allowed by the constitution is a constitutional law 
8.	the written document a lawyer who is arguing before the supreme court prepares is a brief. 
9.	an order to send a case back to a lower court is appeal
10.the written opinion by a justice who disagrees with the majorities is descending opinion 
11. The federal court originated when a ruling was needed for interstate crimes and cases between a state and a citizen that could not be decided within that state.
12. state vs state, state vs citizen, kidnapping, treason 
13. federal courts have the first call for cases, and then go to appeals 
14. Go back to lower court, be sustained, or appealed 
15. Run for office in their federal district 
16. It was the first case with judicial review 
17. constitutional offenses and impeachments
18. first the vote on whether or not they want to hear a case, then they hear the case or dismiss it, they review the constitution and determine, then they vote on a ruling
22. The regulation of interstate commerce brought more charges on the already expensive materials, this caused an increase in prices for the consumer. And now they regulate any radio or television that is nationally brodcast.  

1.	the two party system of the united states.
2.	delegates nominate the presidential candidate at the national convention 
3.	the political machine at new yorks tammany hall 
4.	closed primary helps to prevent crossover voting 
5.	a third party is not a major party 
6.	communist party is the system of china
7.	advocates claim something preserves the secret ballot, I don’t know. 
8.	read the party’s platform to find out what a party stands for
9.	a precinct is the smallest geographical unit of a  party 
10. the ideals are part of a party’s platform
11. The first two political parties in the unites states were the federalists and the democratic-republicans 
12. The communist party, the socialist party and the libertarian party 
13. the wiggs replaced the federalist to become the main challenger to the democratic-republicans in 1830 
14. the two mechanisms used to find delegates are at caucases, an assembly of people. 
15. Congressional campaign committees advocate for their party and are in charge of voting setup, so they have a lot of influence. 
16. The firs thing the delegates do is write the platform for their party. 
17. They have represented their say. 
18.They allow a balance, and cause the other party to stay honest and go for their ideas so they can be reelected. 
24. Capital is achieved by business men by getting investments from investors, capital is obtained by politicians, through making speeches and gaining the support of citizens. 

1.	polls are the location where voting takes place
2.	a closed primary is when a person votes for candidates from only one party 
3.	when citizens cast votes for a presidential candidate they are really voting for the electoral college 
4.	donations to a political party that are supposedly not designated for a particular candidate financial support
5.	a way for citizens to vote on state or local laws is direct democracy or referendums 
6.	a precinct or congressional district is a voting district
7.	a way for citizens to propose new laws or state constitutional amendments is a bill
8.	Presidential, congressional and senate
9.	They are incarcerated?
10. To limit spending on campaigning 
11. It allowed more voting booths
12. because we have the internets
13. they send in their vote
14. every 4 years 
15. Get a certain amount of supporters. 
19.	Instead, I’ll give you the sad statistics of incumbent success rates. 
1982 - 2004. 95% of those congressional incumbents who sought reelection were successful 
		90% of those senate incumbents were successful. 

1.	lobbyist often hired by interest groups to help them influence government officials 
2.	ideas and attitudes that most people hold about elected officials and political issues is public opinion
3.	government censorship of material before it is published is prior restraint 
4.	television, radio, newspapers, magazines, recordings, movies and books are mass media
5.	publishing false information that harms a person’s reputation is libel 
6.	actions taken by government leaders to resolve a problem or issue is public policy 
7.	people who share a point of view about an issue and join together are interest groups
8.	problems that government leaders consider most important and receive the most attention current events.
9.	surveys of individuals that ask questions about issues or candidates are polls
10.organizers that collect money from members of their group and use it to support some candidates and oppose others are political action committees. 
11. people form interest groups in order to join together and let their interests be heard. 
12. because the phrasing can be advantages to a particular outcome
13.personal experience, heritage, age and religious beliefs
14.they can influence government to conduct some actions and defer them from conducting others
15.The FCC is responsible for all interstate commerce and are in charge of censorship such as blocking profanity and sexual explicit material 
16.They gain support for their cause through funds and provide the money to certain candidates and oppose others. 
17.To influence government decisions in their interests. 
18.That government officials cannot receive personal funding from lobbyists. 

1.	An economic rule stating that the quantity demanded and price move in opposite directions is the law of supply and demand.
2.	The desire, willingness, and ability to buy a product is demand.
3.	A product related to another product in such a way that an increase in the price of one reduces the demand for both is a complement.
4.	A downward-sloping graph that show the quantities demanded at each possible price is a demand curve.
5.	A situation in which consumers demand different amounts at every price, causing the demand curve to shit to the left or right is market demand.
6.	A product that can be used in place of another product is a substitute.
7.	A listing that shows the quantities demanded of a product at various prices is a demand schedule.
8.	A situation in which the rise or fall in a product’s price greatly affects the amount that people are willing to buy is demand elasticity.
9.	The law of demand is that quantity demanded and price move in opposite directions.
10.	A demand curve shows the amount off a product that would be bought at all possible prices in the market.
11.	When the price of a product goes down the demand for the product goes up.
12.	When the demand goes up so will the price.
13.	Elastic demand is the extent to which a change in price causes a change in the quantity needed. Elastic demand would change a lot whereas inelastic demand would change very little.
14.	The term for a good often used with another product is a complement.
15.	The demand for butter goes up as the price for margarine goes up.
16.	When a demand curve shifts to the right it means demand is going up and when it goes to the left it means it is going down.

1.	A shortage is the result when the demand is greater than the supply.
2.	Equilibrium price is the price when the amount producers are willing to supply is equal to the amount consumers are willing to buy.
3.	A surplus is the result when quantity supplied is greater than the demand.
4.	A tax credit is a government payment to encourage or protect a certain economic activity.
5.	Supply is the amount of goods or service that producers are able and willing to sell at various prices.
6.	A supply curve is a graph showing the quantities supplied at each possible price.
7.	A supply schedule is a table showing quantities supplied at different possible prices.
8.	Supply elasticity is a measure of how the quantity of a good or service produced changes in relation to changes in price.
9.	If the price is too high, consumers will not pay it, leaving a surplus. If the price is too low, companies will not make as many because they will not make as large of a profit.
10.	Supply is the amount of goods and services that producers are able and willing to sell at various prices during a specified time period. Demand is a consumers desire, willingness, and ability to buy a good or service.
11.	 The supply curve slopes upward and to the right because it reflects the fact that suppliers are generally willing to offer more goods and services at a higher price, and fewer at a lower price. 
12.	The factors that influence supply are price, changes in cost of resources, productivity, technology, changes in government policies, and changes in taxes and subsidies. 
13.	The equilibrium price is determined at the point when supply and demand achieve balance. 
14.	When a shortage happens, the price of an item is too low, and suppliers are unwilling to sell their goods or services in large numbers to meet their demand, so the price must be lowered.
15.	An increase in taxes would push the supply curve to the left.
16.	If the price of a product is above its equilibrium price, there will be a surplus. After that, the price will be driven down.
Economics Activity:
When items are over stocked, merchants move them to the sale section. This tells you that the equilibrium price was most likely too  high for the product. 

1.	the joining of two companies is a merger
2.	a tax rate that is lower for lower incomes and higher for higher incomes is a progressive tax system
3.	welfare programs provide federal tax credits to low-income workers
4.	antitrust laws are laws passed to prevent monopolies and promote competition
5.	public goos are goods and services whose use by one person does not reduce us by another
6.	natural inflation is a prolonged increase in the general level of prices
7.	work force is the total number of people 16 years old or older who are either employed or actively seeking work. 
8.	fiscal policy is the federal governments use of taxation and spending policies that affects overall business activity. 
9.	real GDP is GDP that has been adjusted for the distortions of price changes
10. Because they are private producers and they which to control the wealth
11. The effect of a company on those who depend on its outputs.
12. The government split up AT&T to allow for easier competition and less monopoly of prices and market. 
13.When a company takes backs products from its customers, usually a bad product. 
14. Expansion and contraction in the economy. 
15.It makes their money worth less, therefore they are not able to buy as many products. 
16. The higher one’s degree, the more they get paid. 
17. Money to make up for what an individual would get paid. 
18. The government provides them for families so they can afford food. 
19. Medicaid. 

1.	monetary policy is the policy that involves changing the rate of growth of the supply of money in circulation
2.	a commercial bank is a bank whose main functions are to accept deposits and lend money
3.	reserve is a certain percentage of deposits that banks have to set aside as cash in their own vaults or as deposits in their Federal Reserve district bank 
4.	currency is paper money issued by the Fed.
5.	The FOMC is the most powerful agency of the Federal reserve system 
6.	S&L are financial institutions that traditionally loaned money to people buying houses
7.	The FDIC is a federal corporation that insures individual accounts in financial institutions up to $100,000
8.	the Fed is a bank that can lend money to other banks in times of need, 
9.	the discount rate is the interest rate the Fed changes on its loans. 
10. a savings account is an account in which customers receive interest based on how much money they have deposited. 
11. Check, bonds. 
12. To make sure people keep their money in banks and don’t pull out if they don’t think it’s safe. 
13.To make sure people’s money is safe. 
14.monetary discount rate, selling bonds. 
15. CDs 
16. a savings account

1. the fiscal year is a 12 month financial planning period that may not coincide with the calendar year. 
2.	Medicaid is the program that uses established eligibility requirements to provide health, nutritional, or income benefits to individuals. 
3.	Planning for spending is an act of congress that approves government spending for particular purposes
4.	medicare is a government funded health insurance for people age 65 and older.
5.	funds that one level of government receives from another level of government are gifts’
6.	a deficit is an excess of government expenses over revenue
7.	property tax is a tax based on the value of one’s personal property and real property 
8.	a notification of payment is a note from the government or a corporation promising to repay money with interest by a certain date
9.	unappropriated bills is government spending that does not need the annual approval of the congress
10. the budget is government expenditures that must be approved by congress each year. 
11. taxes 
13.police and fire department 
14. the local government, they don’t have much of a purpose
15.because they cant tell the future 
16.because its unsure how the economy will respond.

1.	a tariff is a tax placed on an imported product.
2.	a developed economy is a system in which economic activity is the result of habit or custom.
3.	a mixed economy is neither pure market nor pure command. 
4.	an undeveloped country has a relatively low per capita GDP
5.	exports are goods sold to other countries 
6.	total gdp divided by a country’s population is per capita GDP
7.	a command economy is a system in which the government controls the factors of production 
8.	imports are goods bought from other countries for domestic use 
9.	a market economy is a system in which individuals own factors of production and make economic decisions
10. import max is a legal limit on the number of units of a foreign good that can enter a country. 
11.they have more products so their money value goes up.
12. start using tariffs 
13.to prevent / start inflation 
14.japan and china
15.the rate one currency can be exchanged for another
16.gdp divided by population 
17.invests in various countries. 

1.	a monarchy is a system of government in which a king or a queen holds unlimited power
2.	a republic is a form of government in which executive and legislative functions both reside in an elected assembly 
3.	PM is the leader of the executive branch in a parliamentary system. 
4.	human rights are fundamental rights that belong to all people
5.	a totalitarian government exercises complete control of the state. 
6.	branching power is the transfer of power to local authorities.
7.	a family that holds a governing power over a long period of time is a ruling family or royal family or dynasty. 
8.	a government in which the power of the heredity ruler is limited by the nation’s constitution and laws is a limited monarch. 
9.	One person or people
10. by force or war
11. russia, korea
12.democratic republic
13.General assembly, house of commons 
14.lib-dems and the conservatives
15.In the 30’s. 

1.	conservatism is the care and protection of natural resources
2.	internationalism is the idea that nations should cooperate to promote common aims
3.	acid rain is precipitation containing high amounts of pollutants
4.	international cooperations are business firms that do business in many countries
5.	cold war is a conflict characterized by competition for world influence without declared military action 
6.	a puppet is a nation politically and economically dominated or controlled by another, more powerful nation
7.	protectionism is the policy of guarding industries from foreign competition by placing tariffs on imports. 
8.	ICC is a court set up by the UN to hear cases about violations of human rights. 
9.	So they can support a healthy economy. 
10.They have factories and are not based on agriculture. 
11.It keeps a steady supply of gas. 
12. it was drafted in 1945
13.The general assembly is what all are a member of. 
14.The victors of World War 2. 
15.IMF and the WHO 
16. Putting in troops from various countries.