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The Grand Canal was built to link the two great rivers of China, the Huang He (Yellow River) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). The new canal allowed ships to easily transport rice from south to north.

The civil service was restored by the Tang Dynasty and acted as a method of recruiting officials for the civilian bureaucracy.

(I couldn’t find anything on the Song technologies). During the Tang dynasty the Chinese began to make steel by mixing cast iron and wrought iron in a blast furnace heated by the burning of coal. Gunpowder was also invented during the Tang dynasty and was used to make explosives.

The scholar-gentry replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of Chinese society.

Temujin was born during the 1160’s and unified the mongols. In 1206 he was elected Genghis Khan.

The mongols attacked Persia in 1231, defeated the song in 1279 and in 1258 defeated the Abbasids.

Neo-Confucianism served as confucian response to Buddhism and daoism. It teaches that the world is real, not an illusion, and that fulfillment comes not from withdrawal but from participation in the world.

Commercial capitalism is private business based on profit. It did not develop in china because they felt that trade and manufacturing was inferior to farming.

The Forbidden city or imperial city is known as the forbidden city because it is off-limits to commoners. It is located in Beijing.

The Qing people were a farming and hunting people who lived northeast of the Great wall who prior to their adoption of china were known as the Manchus.

China did its best to repel European colonization, throughout history China has tried to distance itself from the europeans (limiting trade).

Because Japan is a chain of many islands it developed very isolated to other cultures. Allowing it to be truly unique.

Under Tokugawa rule all missionaries were expelled, and Japanese Christians were persecuted. The state was divided into about 250 separate territories called hans, or domains.

In the Tokugawa Japan the four main classes were: warriors, peasants, artisans and merchants. Intermarriage between classes was forbidden. So overall it was a very strict system.

Bushido is “the way of the warrior.” Which is above all, the samurai’s code was based on loyalty to his lord/.