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Chapter 9 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

2. Share tenantry
3. Scalawag
4. Disenfranchisement
5. Solid South
6. Black codes

People To Identify 

W.E.B. Du Bois was a famous black historian who challenged the idea that Reconstruction was a total loss or a “glorious failure.” 
Henry Grady was the editor of the Atlanta Constitution and he urged the South to embrace the spirit of enterprise and business. He advocated switching to different economic activity. 
Edwin Stanton was the Secretary of War who was dismissed by Johnson in February 1868. 
Charles Sumner was a Senator of Massachusetts and one of the Radical Republican leaders. He helped found the republican party. He was for giving slaves the vote (and freeing them) and was attacked by a southern congressman. 
Samuel Tilden was the governor of New York and chosen to run for President in 1876. He ran against Rutherford B. Hayes. The election was very close and they had to strike an agreement that Hayes won. 
Booker T. Washington was a former slave who founded the National Negro Business League. He said that black people needed to get ahead economically before worrying about their rights.

Places To Locate

1. C
2. A
3. E
4. D

Reviewing the Facts
President Johnson believed that Reconstruction was the job of the President and not the Congress. He wanted to form new state governments in the South.
The white southerners tried to restore prewar order by making the black codes, which were laws that intended to stop the movement of freedom and return blacks back to plantation labor.
The Freedmen’s Bureau was a federal agency set up after the Civil War to distribute food, clothing, and fuel to the poor of the South.  Johnson undermined this by giving pardoned Confederate landowners their land back, forcing freedmen to give up theirs.
The Radical Republicans wanted full and equal citizenship for all freedmen, but the Moderate Republicans didn’t want to grant the National Government that much power.  The Moderate Republicans joined the Radicals to pass the Reconstruction Act of 1867. They ended up changing their mind because they wanted to abolish the planter class (along with slavery). 
The Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery in the United States.  The Fourteenth Amendment declared that all native-born or naturalized people were citizens and had the same rights as citizens.  The Fifteenth Amendment declared that the right to vote should not be denied “on a count of race, color, or previous condition of servitude”.
President Johnson defied Congress by dismissing the Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton. This caused the House to impeach Johnson. The trial ended one vote short of conviction. 
The Ku Klux Klan harassed black people and often lynched them.  The group’s aims were to control elections, destroy the Republican party, and to keep black people in a subordinate role.
The blacks, scalawags, and carpetbaggers held office in reconstruction legislature.  Many white southerners resented them because they were against black education. It’s important to note that even though slavery was abolished, racism and discrimination was still extant.
The post-war South was dominated by tenant farming, rail roads, textile factories, along with a few other blooming industries. Also, cotton was starting to be grown less and less.
In the late 1800s, the Supreme Court made the Jim Crow laws, which made segregation official in a number of areas in southern life.  Many whites didn’t want the Black people to vote, so they resorted to intimidation to keep them down. Cases like the Dred Scott case and Poesy v Ferguson essentially legalized racism and segregation. 

Critical Thinking Skills

In my own words, this section is about freed slaves breaking as many bonds as possible. They finally had freedom from slavery, and they wanted to get as far from it as possible. This is especially shown by the establishment of schools in order to educate as many people as possible. 
If Reconstruction never occurred then I feel like the situation for blacks in the late 1800s would’ve been terrible. The former Confederate government probably would have retaken power in a new state government form. Black codes would have been passed completely unregulated by southern states. 
I think this objection would have made a strong case in court, and may even held up. However, I don’t think that any southerner would have done this unless they had more people at their back, and even then they probably would not have wanted to bring up any new issues. 
Today the southern economy is far more diverse than it was then. There are many more industries upon which it relies, however, some of the big ones include: agriculture, food industries, factories, and a combination of all small businesses.