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Chapter 8 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

1. Compromise of 1850
2. Dred Scott case
3. Battle of Antietam
4. Copperhead
5. Battle of Vicksburg
6. Emancipation Proclamation

People To Identify 

1. John Brown was a Kansas raider who led thirteen followers to attack the United States. He tried to start a slave rebellion at Harper’s Ferry. 
2. Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850 and was a leader of the West and known as the great compromiser. 
3. Jefferson Davis was voted the first President of the Confederate States of America. 
4. Stephen Douglas was a powerful and popular Illinois Democrat who ran against Lincoln in presidential election and proposed the Kansas-Nebraska act. 
5. Robert E. Lee was a Virginian who captured John Brown at Harper’s Ferry. He was a Confederate General and one of the best ever known. 
6. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin and was born in Connecticut. She was the wife of a clergyman and was anti-slavery. 

Places To Locate

1. B
2. D
3. E
4. A
5. C

Reviewing the Facts
The Compromise of 1850 said: (1) California was admitted to the Union as a free state. (2) The territories of New Mexico and Utah were created without restrictions on slavery. (3) The slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C. (4) Congress passed a stricter fugitive slave law. Neither side was satisfied because the North was not about about the fugitive slave law and the sound was not happy about California being a free state. 
Northerners were angry about the Kansas-Nebraska Art because they did not want the expansion of slavery in any way. They were angry about the Dred Scott case because it was going against their every belief by saying that the Constitution did not apply to Black people. 
The candidates for Presidency in 1860 were Stephen Douglas, John C. Breckinridge, and Abraham Lincoln. What allowed Lincoln to win was that the Democrats were divided between Stephen Douglas and John C. Breckinridge. Douglas also lost the support of the South for showing how popular sovereignty could work against slavery. 
Southern states justified secession by saying that they freely joined the Union, so they could freely leave it. The North’s response was not a good one, they said that if states could secede the Union was simply a “rope of sand”. The North claimed that the constitution was the supreme law of the land. 
The Union had more population, railroads, workers, manufacturing plants, mineral deposits, almost every ship in the navy, and Abraham Lincoln. However some of the United States’ best general’s joined the Confederacy, also they were fighting an offensive war. Southern troops had more will to fight because they were defending their homes. 
At first Northern strategy was to “economically suffocate” the South by blockading them. Southern strategy was merely to defend and stay independent. Soon public opinion persuaded both sides to look for big battles. The South knew the terrain better than the North and didn’t have to go across borders. The North had better weapons and means of travel so they could easily surround the South. 
The North blockaded the Confederacy in order to “suffocate them economically.” The Union was successful in doing so, although it did not have as big of an effect as one would expect. It ended up disabling the South of trading and forming allies. 
The western front lay between the Mississippi River and Appalachian Mountains. It was in Missouri. Earl Von Dorn planned on running out the Union by marching 16000 troops and taking over St. Louis. He was met by 11000 Union troops and his men fled. It was important because this area was very useful, and for example, controlling the Mississippi river is a huge advantage. 
The battles that were turning points were the Battle of Vicksburg because it gave the Union control of the Mississippi and the Battle of Getttysburg because of the Union’s victory.
 The Civil War had many immediate effects: Abolition of slavery, Devastation of the South, Reconstruction of the South, then the nation was reunited, a sense of triumph pervaded the North and defeat in the South. Some long-term effects were: a boom of industry, and the federal government was clearly dominant.  

Critical Thinking Skills

Stowe felt that Northerners bore some responsibility for slavery because they “participated [and] encouraged it.” I think she means that Northerners accepted products made through slavery, and were therefore guilty of it. 
South: We joined the nation willingly on the basis that the constitution would be followed. Now that it is not being followed (anti-slavery) we can willingly secede. North: States, that were established by the nation, don’t have the right to secede. If they did, then there is almost no point in the nation. 
Lincoln saw that McClellan was just sitting on his army, and not using it. He was just “preparing for when the North once again tried to take Richmond.” Lincoln felt like this was a waste of resources.