read more

In the Roman Republic, two consuls ran the government and led the Roman army into battle.

Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a powerful governmental coalition called the Triumvirate.

A form of government in which the leader is not a monarch and certain citizens have the right to vote is called a Republic.

Plebeians were Roman were Roman citizens who wanted political and social equality with the wealthy Praetors.

Cases of civil law were applied to citizens and later to non-citizens by judges who were called Praetors.

Insulae housed the poor in the city of Rome.

Why were the Etruscans considered to be the greatest influence on early Rome?

The Etruscans were considered to be the greatest influence on Rome because because Rome adopted the Etruscan style of dress; the toga. Most importantly however they adopted Etruscan military tactics, which is one of the reasons Rome was so successful. It is worth noting that the Romans borrowed the cultivation of olives and grapes from the Greeks as well as their alphabet and artistic and cultural models from Greek sculpture, architecture, and literature.

List at least three ways in which geography influenced Roman history.

A mountain range (The Apennines) were less rugged than the mountains of Greece which allowed Italy to be more united. Italy also had more land for farming, which obviously allowed a larger population. Finally it was close enough inland so that it was out of reach from pirates, and another geographical advantage is that it was built on seven hills, which allowed easy defending against attack.

Who was Hannibal, what happened to him, and why was he important?

Hannibal was a Carthaginian general, thought to be the greatest of all Carthaginian generals. Hannibal decided to attack the Romans, he brought 46,00 men, large amount of horses and 37 battle elephants across the alps to attack Rome from behind. The Roman army was not prepared and suffered heavy loses, and eventually retreated to central Italy. After the attack, he did not have enough supplies to return to Carthage. He spent years wondering about northern italy and was eventually trapped by the Roman forces.

Who were the patricians and plebeians and why were they in conflict with each other?

The Patricians were great landowners who became Rome’s first ruling class. The Plebeians were less wealthy landholders, often specified in a profession such as craftspeople, they were a larger class. They were basically fighting over the right to have a say in their government, the Patricians made up the Senate and at first did not recognize the Plebeians input.

Name three famous Roman writers. Name their works and explain why these works are important.

The famous roman writers were: Virgil, Horace, and Livy. Virgil wrote the Aeneid the poem. It was in honor of Rome. It is important because Virgils purpose of the poem was that the main character Aeneas had fulfilled his mission to establish the Romans in italy, allowing rome to start its mission to rule the world. Horaces was a friend of Virgils and was a responsible for Satires, the main point of which was to point out the weakness of humans. Finally, Livy who wrote the History of Rome, which consisted of 142 books. His works covered all the way from the foundation of the city to 9 B.C.

Which lasted longer, the Roman Republic or the Zhou Empire?

The Zhou empire lasted longer, from 1122 B.C. - 256 B.C. As apposed to the Roman republic which was only 509 B.C - 27 B.C.