read more
Chapter 27 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

Berlin Wall
New Frontier
Alliance for Progress
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Peace Corps
Great Society

People To Identify 

Neil Armstrong- one of three men on Apollo 11 which went to the moon; was watched on tv by over 500 million people when he first walked on the moon; 
“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.”
Fidel Castro- lawyer in Cuba who led an uprising against the dictatorship of Fulgencio Batista; jailed and murdered his opponents; seized property owned by American companies.
Nikita Khrushchev- Soviet leader who offered a deal to the United States that said if the United States pledged not to invade Cuba, the missiles would be removed and soon after, sent another demand that said that the United State’s missiles in Turkey should be dismantled.
Robert McNamara- president of the Ford Motor Company who became Secretary of Defense under Kennedy. 
Lee Harvey Oswald- the suspected assassin of John F. Kennedy; was murdered, while being transferred to another jail, by a Dallas nightclub owner named Jack Ruby.
Dean Rusk- president of the Rockefeller Foundation who was made Secretary of State under Kennedy.
Earl Warren- was made Chief Justice by Eisenhower in 1953; headed a commission to investigate Kennedy’s assassination; Conservatives wanted to impeach him.

Places To Locate

Reviewing the Facts
In the 1960 Presidential election, the Republican candidate who was running against Kennedy was Richard M. Nixon.  Both candidates were very close in votes, however, Kennedy chose a running mate who helped him win.  He chose Texas Senator Lyndon B. Johnson to run with him and this helped gain the Democratic vote in Texas.
President Kennedy did not want to face the terrible decision of whether or not to use nuclear weapons if he knew that the United States would suffer nuclear devastation in return.  Because of this, he advocated a policy called flexible response that aimed to give the President a range of options for dealing with international crises.
Kennedy realized that communism fed on poverty and social injustice.  So, rather than forming a stronger military, he urged the United States to offer poor nations a “peaceful revolution” against the “common enemies of man: tyranny, poverty, disease, and war itself”.  He did this in two different ways.  The first was the Peace Corps.  The Peace Corps sent young men and women to do volunteer work in developing countries.  The second was the Alliance for Progress.  The Alliance aimed to stop communism in Latin America by offering economical and technical aid to nations in the region.
The Cuban missile crisis began on October 16, 1962 when Kennedy received spy-plane photographs showing Soviet missiles being installed in Cuba.  On October 22, 1962, he went on television to announce the missile situation and that the United States would be blockading Cuba to the public.  The Navy would stop all approaching vessels and search them for weapons and Kennedy warned the Soviets to remove the missiles already in place or further steps would be takes.  Four days later, Nikita Khrushchev sent a cable to Kennedy saying that if the United States pledged to not invade Cuba, the missiles would be removed followed by another cable stating that the United States’ nuclear missiles in Turkey should be removed.  John Kennedy’s brother, Robert, suggested that he privately assure the Soviets that they would remove the missiles from Turkey and the Soviets would withdraw missiles from Cuba, but not say that a deal had been made.  The Soviets accepted and the crisis passed.
Kennedy had trouble getting his domestic programs through Congress because they were a combination of Republicans and conservatives, the same combination that defeated much of Truman’s Fair Deal.  However, he did manage to get an increase in the minimum wage by twenty-five more cents an hour.  He also got Congress to approve five billion dollars in urban renewal programs.
Launching the United States into space exploration was one of Kennedy’s top priorities because shortly after he took office he announced that he believed that the nation should commit itself to achieve the goal of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth before the decade was out.
After Kennedy’s assassination, his suspected killer, Lee Harvey Oswald, was murdered as well.  This raised questions such as “Was Oswald the assassin?  Had he acted alone?  Had there been a conspiracy to murder the president?”  Investigations concluded that Oswald was the killer.
After graduating from high school, Lyndon B. Johnson became a teacher, but when a congressional seat opened up in 1937, he joined the race.  At the age of 29, he became the youngest member of Congress.  In 1955, he became Senate Majority Leader.  He became the vice president to John F. Kennedy and took his spot as President after Kennedy’s assassination.
Three controversial rulings of the Warren Court were Gideon v. Wainwright in which the Court ruled that state courts provide a lawyer in criminal cases to anyone who cant’s afford to hire one, Escobedo v. Illinois in which the Court declared that an accused person has the right to have a lawyer present when being questioned by the police, and Miranda v. Arizona in which the Court ruled that police must inform suspects of their legal rights at the time of the arrest.  Conservatives claimed that the rulings handicapped the police and put hard-core criminals back on the streets.
The main components of Johnson’s Great Society programs consisted of reducing poverty with programs such as the Food Stamp Act of 1964, Medicaid to provide medical care to those who couldn’t afford it, and Medicare to provide medical insurance for those over 65.  His main foreign policy initiative was to intervene a dictator in the Dominican Republic.

Critical Thinking

JFK was stressing the fact that since the US was in the Cold War the American people needed to be willing to make sacrifices for their country. 
Pros: Assert power, eliminate a close communist threat, send a message to the soviet union, show the US was continuing to not tolerate communism 
	Cons: wasn’t well thought/planned out, ended up sending the opposite of the message wanted, left a black mark domestically in JFK’s presidency
3. Truman was a minimalist and urged for the policy of containment. Eisenhower was more extreme and was in favor of massive retaliation. JFK was moderate and liked the idea of flexible response. Johnson can be considered to be more aggressive because of his response in Vietnam.