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Chapter 2 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms
Renaissance - This “Rebirth” took place after medieval times, was a time of new ideas, art, and science. 
Columbian Exchange - The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases from one hemisphere to another. 
Reconquista - The retaking of Spain (Iberian Peninsula) from the moors. 
Separatists - English folk who were in favor of a new colony in New England. 
House of Burgesses - The first representative assembly in the colonies. 

People To Identify 
Francis Drake
John Smith
Hernán Cortés 
William Bradford 
Sir Walter Raleigh 

Places To Locate

Reviewing the Facts
As was found with many of the explorers of that time (and arguably the explorers of any time), Columbus sought God, Gold, and Glory. God being the spread of his personal religion. Gold being the riches with which he expected to receive on the return (due to selling newly obtained scarce resources in a high demand market). Finally, glory being notoriety for such an intrepid adventure. 
The Spanish monarchs decided to sponsor Columbus’ voyage because he promised to spread Christianity, bring back riches, as well as glory to Spain. 
One practical effect of Columbus discovering the Western Hemisphere was that it set an example for other explorers (i.e. demonstrate that they too could become affluent and notorious when successful). 
Black slaves were imported to the Americas for cheap labor. The Native Indians were also enslaved but they did not survive (it was claimed by Columbus that some of them were cannibals). 
Cortés used relatively advanced technological (horses in battle) and psychological (the Aztecs saw the men riding the horses as monsters) tactics to conquer the Aztecs.    Cortés also enlisted the help of those “chafing” under Aztec rule. 
Mercantilism affected Spain’s relationship with its colonies greatly. Colonies were used as a source of raw goods, usually to be resold. Everything was done in favor of the mother country. 
When Spain attempted to invade England with its armada and failed, other nations realized that Spain was not the supreme power it was once thought to be and became braver in their exploits. 
The defeat of the Spanish Armada was significant because it reduced Spain’s influence and grandeur. Also, Northern Europe (most of it, at least) remained Protestant. 
English encouragement for colonies first came from Richard Hakluyt, and later The Crown helped out those involved in joint stocks for colonies. 
 Early English colonies faced many threats. The primary being able to be self-reliant (in terms of sustenance), as well as Native-American aggression. 

Critical Thinking Skills

In todays wold there are very few comparable unexplored areas. Parts of the Amazon have yet to be explored, however do to satellite imaging technology, we have an idea of what’s there unlike the early explorers whom traveled blindly. The area of the world we know the least about is the deep sea. If we include extraterrestrial exploration, we know the least about outer space. 
The Portuguese guarded their navigational knowledge as a state secret for a very good reason: it lead to riches. Should other countries get hold of it they could take away from Portugal’s potential wealth. 
Las Casas’ opponents had very different interests. They wanted two things: money and wealth. They would attempt to reach these goals by any means necessary (and justify said means any way they could). 
I think the reason for this is obvious: group mentality. The psychological principle of “social loafing” comes into play when a group is set out to complete a task. This principle is based on the observed phenomenon that individuals’ effort tends to decrease when they are in a group because they are not solely responsible for completing the work and they thus feel less motivated for failure would not be only attributed to them but the entire group. (Source: AP Psychology with Mr. Nelson)