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Chapter 19 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

Triple Entente
Central Powers
Zimmermann Note
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
League of Nations
Balfour Declaration

People To Identify 

Bernard Baruch- financer, head of the War of Industries Board which regulated the supply of raw materials to manufacturers and the delivery of finished products.
Georges Clemenceau- French, refused to talk to Wilson and said “How can I talk to a fellow who thinks himself the first man for 2,000 years who has known anything about peace on earth?”, argued with many others over how to divide the territory of fallen empires.
William Haywood- radical labor leader who were convicted of sedition with 94 other members of the IWW.
Herbert Hoover- named head of the Food Administration (set up crop prices and regulated food exports to Europe), asked Americans to give up wheat on Mondays and Wednesdays, meat on Tuesdays, and pork on Thursdays and Saturdays to make sure there was enough food to send abroad (Hooverizing), and encouraged Americans to plant a home vegetable garden.
Henry Cabot Lodge- Republican, led Senators opposing the Treaty of Versailles because it restricted America’s independent authority to make foreign policy decisions.
John J. Pershing- commander of the American Expeditionary Forces, visited Lafayette’s tomb before he left on his military mission, told his troops “We must strike harder than ever” while fighting Germany.

Places To Locate


Reviewing the Facts
The immediate cause of World War I was the rise of Nationalism.  This combined with imperialism, militarism (people who glorify the military), and a complex set of alliances all led up to WWI.
Warfare in the trenches was horrible.  First off, sometimes the enemy trenches were so close to each other, they could hear the other people talking.  The living conditions there were also horrid.  The soldiers had no place to sit, no shelter, and nowhere to exercise to keep warm.  The days were boring and bleak, but the nights had all the action of receiving supplies and repair the dugouts and barbed wire.  Spies went out on patrol, keeping watch out for snipers and grenades.  Then the attacks usually came before dawn.
The first action made by Germany that drew America out of neutrality was attacking the Lusitania.  The ship contained 1,198 passengers, 128 Americans, but was secretly carrying munitions.  The Germans sank the ship and all the passengers went down with it.  To make up for it, Germany apologized and gave money for the damages, which satisfied Americans.  The second thing Germany did was sink the French passenger ship Sussex.  It contained and killed several Americans.  Wilson was furious and had Germany sign the Sussex Pledge which made it so Germany couldn’t sink merchant ships “without warning and without saving human lives”.  This pledge would be violated later on.
Wilson was having trouble deciding whether or not to enter the war after breaking ties with Germany.  However, after Czar Nicholas II was overthrown and a democratic government was set up in Russia, he decided that they would be an acceptable ally for the US and asked a joint session of Congress on April 2, 1917 for a declaration of war.  The way that Wilson presented the war to the American people was as a world problem, not an American one, and as an issue of morality and not of politics.
In Mid-October 1918, General Pershing’s men crushed the Germans.  They asked for the Allied terms of armistice the next day.  The war ended on November 11, 1918 (the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month) when the armistice was signed.  No soldiers could believe that it was finally over, and they crawled out of their trenches to celebrate.
The first task that the government had to accomplish was mobilizing troops.  They did this through the draft, which made all men between the ages of 21 and 30 sign up for military service.  The War of Industries took care of the industrial matters by regulating the supply of raw materials to manufacturers and the delivery of finished products.
The government restricted civil rights to make sure the people of the US stayed on the ‘good’ side.  They did this through the Trading with the Enemy Act, Sedition Act, and the Espionage Act.
Leaders of the other Allied nations rejected Wilson’s call for a lenient peace settlement because they saw his as a stubborn, self-righteous man.  Georges Clemenceau even went as far as to say “Talk to Wilson? How can I talk to a fellow who thinks himself the first man for 2,000 years who has known anything about peace on earth?”
The Senate of the United States rejected the Treaty of Versailles because they opposed one of the articles of it’s covenant which called for members of the League to defend one another’s territory against aggression.  They didn’t want to restrict America’s independent authority to make foreign policy decisions.
After the war, all throughout Europe, people were starving.  There were also countless numbers of political problems that were added to the economic problems.  The main political problems were in the Middle East, Armenia, Russia, and Germany.  Unlike Europe, the United States had not suffered enormously.  Compared to the millions of men lost by other countries, the 116,000 lost by the US wasn’t too bad.  War time production also improved the US economy, making it the richest country In the world.

Critical Thinking

It all began with one shot. Although the bullet’s size was small, it stood for something much greater. This action was driven my nationalism; a notion whose influence flooded Europe by the 1900s. The Germans and Russians were each on their own separate conquest to unite; this inevitably led to conflict. A notable location of this conflict was Bosnia. European nations were in constant struggle to absorb any territory in the hope of prospering from more raw materials or markets. While all of these nations were expanding, they built up their armies as military might had a factor in their ability to obtain new territories. Drafts produced inconceivably huge armies. In order for smaller countries incapable of the mass production of soldiers Russia was capable of drafting to stay alive, they were forced to band together forming a convoluted net of alliances throughout Europe. A clause in these alliances required that all members of the alliance go to war if any singular attack is made on another member. It was this entanglement that bred the massively scaled warfare. 
For one, the constituency of the United States’ government were not themselves members of one side or another (North or South) as in World War 1. That allowed for more unilateral decision making by the government. Another enormous difference was that the Civil war was entirely domestic while there was no warfare on united states soil during World War 1. 
The primary cause of an ideological shift post-war would be loss. During war, an enormous amount of loss is endured, usually in the name of an ideology. During the war, this ideology is associated with this painful loss, and therefore becomes less appealing. Additionally, while these ideologies become less appealing during the war, material goods are often destroyed, and thus it’s expected to see an accelerated, correctional transition to materialism.