Chapter 17 Review Joe Puccio
Open Door Policy- a policy set forth by Secretary of State John Hay in 1899, advocating equal commercial opportunity for all nations dealing with China
Boxer Rebellion- a violent, unsuccessful attempt by some Chinese in 1900 to drive foreigners from China
Gentlemen’s Agreement- an agreement signed between the United States and Japan in 1907-1908 that restricted Japanese immigration to the United States
Chinese Exclusion Act- an act passed in 1882 suspending all immigration from China for ten years
Platt Amendment- a 1902 agreement between the United States and Cuba that gave the United States the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and forced Cuba to lease harbors to the United States for naval stations
Teller Amendment- an amendment to the declaration of war on Spain in 1898, stating that the United States would let the Cuban people rule themselves
Imperialism- establishing political or economic control over other countries
Sphere of influence- a section of one country in which another country has special influence
People To Identify
Matthew C. Perry
Places To Locate
Reviewing the Facts
Causes for the American interest in empire building consisted mainly of the desire to compete with Europe and the idea of Social Darwinism. Europe had been setting up colonies around the world and controlled much of Africa and Asia. One American diplomat said “The rule of survival of the fittest applies to nations as well as to the animal kingdom. These two things inspired Americans to take interest in empire building.
The United States wanted Samoa because of its strategic location and because of its use as a resting place for whaling and fishing ships. The chieftains of Samoa tried to make Samoa a protectorate of the United States, but Congress refused it. Eventually, the United States, Germany, and Great Britain set up a protectorate over Samoa and when Great Britain withdrew, Germany and the United States split up the islands. Americans often the used Hawaiian Islands for food and supplies for trading ships. Their location caused for a useful refueling station for vessels on their way to China. In the 1820s, United States missionaries began to settle in Hawaii to spread Christianity. This created close economic ties between Hawaii and the United States. However, in 1890, Congress passed a tariff that wiped out the advantages of Hawaiian sugar planters, and caused Hawaii to try to pull away from the United States. Eventually, Hawaii was annexed and added to the United States.
Spanish policies in Cuba became increasingly brutal, causing American public sentiments against it. Spanish military commander Valeriano Weyler was convinced that Cuban civilians were helping the guerrilla fighters, so thousands were put in squalid detention centers. Many Cubans died of starvation and disease.
Events such as Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish minister to the United States, writing an insulting letter about the President and American blame of the Spanish when one of the United States battleships, Maine, blew up in Havana Harbor lead up to the Spanish-American War. The first battle took place in Manila Bay. George Dewey attacked the Spanish fleet and quickly destroyed their ships without losing a single man. Americans then seized the Philippines. The American army had a harder time fighting in Cuba because of hot uniforms in a tropical climate, and the fact that they were ill-trained and ill-prepared for war. Theodore Roosevelt’s Rough Riders and the American army captured San Juan Hill and other fortified positions around the city of Santiago. The American gunboats closed in around the Spanish fleet when they tried to escape and soon destroyed them. The city soon surrendered. America and Spain agreed to stop fighting on August 12, 1898, after America’s quick victory in Puerto Rico.
As a result of it’s victory in the Spanish-American War, America gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
Arguments such as ruling people against their will is immoral, acquiring new territory would cost too much money (each colony would require defense forces to protect it from rival nations), and the fact that other people were utterly alien to them were presented opposing the acquisition of overseas territory.
After the Spanish-American War, Filipinos wanted independence rather than American rule. This began a guerrilla war between the Philippines and the United States. America eventually won after nearly three years. Despite their loss, the Philippines still begged for independence and was eventually granted a ten year period in 1934.
Business leaders in the United States favored Chinese immigration because it provided a large labor pool. Labor leaders, on the other hand, opposed Chinese immigration, claiming that it lowered wages.
Americans wanted to open trade with Japan so their whalers would be able to land in Japan for fresh food, water, and other supplies, and to buy Japanese goods such as silk. The United States government sent Matthew C. Perry to Japan in 1854 to open trade. The Japanese were scared into signing the treaty by Perry’s warships.
Roosevelt’s reasons for helping settle the Russo-Japanese War were that he wanted both Russia and Japan to uphold the Open Door Policy and that he feared that if Japan won the war, it might become too strong.
I think that the biggest connection is Manifest Destiny. At the time some people had no problem conquering other nations in order to achieve an entirely new manifest destiny.
I think that Congress passed the Teller Amendment because of public pressure. The public did not think it was okay for a nation that had had to fight for its freedom from its mother country for another nation.
I think that the arguments of the imperialists are more convincing. It would be VERY hypocritical of the United States to take control of a whole nation that we just helped to liberate from an oppressive government. A better option would be to offer help to the newly forming government in order to help spread democrat spirit.