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Chapter 15 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

Primary system
Progressive tax

People To Identify 

Frances Perkins
Carrie Nation
Susan B. Anthony
Upton Sinclair
Robert La Follette

Places To Locate

1. E
2. A
3. B

Reviewing the Facts

The Progressive Movement differed from the Populist Movement in four main ways: 1. Populism drew its strength from rural areas while progressivism centered in cities. 2. Populists tended to be poor and uneducated while most progressives were middle-class and well-educated. 3. Populists flirted with radical ideas, while progressives stayed in the political mainstream. 4. Populism failed, progressivism succeeded. 
Progressives had a different view of government. They felt that the majority of government was fine as it was, but that some large changes needed to be made including things like women’s suffrage and corruption. The however did not feel that they needed to take extreme measures, like going on strike to reach these goals.
Progressives came up with two new kinds of city government in order to reduce corruption. These were the city commission and the city manager forms of government. The city commission form of government consisted of a board of five citizens elected by voters to run the city. The commission wasn’t made up of professional politicians. Instead doctors, lawyers, business people, and others would serve in their spare time. The city manager form of government consisted of a single person hired to run the city. City managers understood the complex problems cities faced, and because city managers were well paid they were hard to corrupt. 
The progressives urged two procedural reforms on state government.  The first was the initiative that gave voters the power to propose a bill and present it to the legislature for a vote.  This allowed voters to force lawmakers to deal with difficult issues.  The second reform was the referendum which allowed the public to vote on a bill offered by the legislature.
The city and state governments came up with many methods to regulate business.  The business license made it so every business person had to apply for a license and had to renew it.  If the business tried to cheat its customers, the city could refuse to renew it.  The government had a hard time regulating public utilities and come up with two methods to do so.  The first was that city governments could take over and run public utilities.  The second was that city governments could leave utilities in private hands but regulate them.  Most cities went with the second solution.
While most businesses did not risk challenging progressive laws in most cases, they drew the line when it came to issues like working conditions, wages, hours, workmen’s compensation, and Yellow Dog contracts. They saw these as core issues that they should have control over, however, more often than not, decisions were made against their favor. The government’s attempts of regulation were challenged by business in areas such as the telephone industry, railroads, and insurance companies.  These all could not be regulated by cities because they did business beyond city limits.
The idea of a federal income tax started in 1892 when the Populist Party decided they wanted a tax that assigns a higher tax rate to people with higher incomes.  Congress passed a federal income tax in 1894, but the following year, it was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.  The progressives liked the idea of a federal income tax and in 1913, the Sixteenth Amendment passed, giving Congress the power to levy an income tax. They then passed an income tax the same year.
Prior to the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were selected by the state legislatures.  After the passage, the power was given to the people so they could vote for them like they did for the members of the House of Representatives.
Those who favored the banning of alcohol made arguments such as drinking harmed those who drank, their employers (lost money due to low productivity), and their families (had to dead with the misbehavior of drinkers).
The passage of the Fifteenth Amendment fostered the growth of women’s suffrage by giving the right to vote to blacks, but not women.  World War I helped the women’s suffrage movement because when the men left offices and factories to join the war, their jobs were left to women.  Their contributions to the war effort added strength to the demand for the vote, and by 1919, fifteen states had granted women full suffrage.
Critical thinking

 This argument is valid, however, it brings up one point: what do those with a “larger” income need their excess income for? Yes, people have a right to keep (most) of what they earn, but what exactly is wrong about taking excess money from those who don’t need it, and giving it to those whom do? 
The Progressive movement was more attractive to the middle class than the working class because it wasn’t truly focused on the issues of the working class. It was more focused on ensuring that the government helped everyone it could, as much as it could. 
Catt’s tone in this statement seems bitter-sweet. She is happy that goals are being met and that new generations are becoming involved, but sad that older generations are not getting to see the goals being met. This statement could certainly be fact, as the movement lasted an extensive amount of time, and those who were there at the beginning of it definitely could’ve died by the end.