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Chapter 13 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms

1. Settlement house
2. Spoils system
3. Standpatter
4. Natural selection
5. Conspicuous consumption

People To Identify 

1. Ulysses S. Grant
2. William Marcy Tweed
3. Herbert Spencer
4. Jane Addams
5. Andrew Carnegie

Places To Locate

1. B
2. D
3. E
4. A
5. C

Reviewing the Facts
1. Social Darwinism was the theory that in every human activity, individuals compete for success. The unfit or incompetent lose, and the strong competent win. These winners make up natural upper class. 
2. The Gospel of Wealth was a theory developed by Andrew Carnegie that argued that the wealthy had a duty to help others. Many other wealthy business men agreed.
3. Many people came to agree that the concentration of wealth was a bad thing because of a variety of reasons, to quote Rutherford B. Hayes, “Great wealth in the hands of few means extreme poverty, and ignorance, vice, and wretchedness as the lot of the many.” I think the main concern and corruption, and the runner-up was that impoverish people generally remained poor, they were trapped.
The urban poor faced many problems in day to day life. On the most basic level, the lower class had trouble even feeding them, also housing and education were hard to attain if you had no money, and no time because you were always working. The government “felt no obligation to lessen the misery of the poor”.
Many Americans helped to relieve the poor. Americans established charities (92 of them by 1892), pushed for safety and health standards, and some even found settlement houses. Settlement houses were vital especially for immigrants because they could learn English there, as well as how to vote.
The fact that so many immigrants were coming was a big help to political machines. Immigrants could easily be bought. Also there were almost no repercussions for doing something like rigging an election. This meant that political machines could run rampant. When New York’s boss Tweed was accused of corruption he said “As long as I count the votes, what are you going to do about it?”
Money had a great influence on national politics. It had such a large influence that it almost mad voting pointless. Think this because decisions could be bought with money, and those holding the positions could be bought even easier.
The civil service (act of 1883) was an act that passed after the assassination of James Garfield who was assassination by a man who didn’t get the job he wanted. Its purpose was to eliminate the spoils system.
Major political parties avoided addressing controversial political issues because it was bad for business. It split their voters and lowered their chance to gain power. Also, there wasn’t any real pressure to resolve the issues.
 In the late 19th century Congress addressed Civil War pensions. But didn’t address thing that were left of civil service tariffs, corruption, and other such serious issues.
Critical thinking

1. Herbert Spencer took the main idea from Darwin’s theory, Natural Selection, and applied it to human society accordingly. He said that the most competent people and businesses would prosper, while the incompetent would die.
2. A member of congress voting on bills that concern will often be unethical. This is because the fact that their money is concerned will more than likely influence their decision in their favor. I think that if wither of them had been confronted privately about this they would have admitted it. However if confronted publicly they would have put up great opposition in order to protect themselves.