Chapter 12 Review Joe Puccio
People To Identify
William Randolph Hearst
William Le Baron Jenney
John A. Roebling
Frederick Law Olmsted
Places To Locate
Reviewing the Facts
Location is critical when it comes to developing a city. If a city was in a good location, somewhere like Chicago where important things like lakes, railroads, and canals meet then it will rapidly grow. This is because it is located where things meet, so industry will flourish and people will flock to the town/city.
There were several technological breakthroughs that were conducive to rapid urban growth after the 1850’s. They included the Bessemer process which is allowed for skyscrapers to be built, which used space very efficiently. Then the elevator which made traversing up and down the skyscrapers easier. Mass transit (trolleys, subways etc.) helped my making getting around the city easier, and allowing people to live farther from where they worked. Also bridges helped cities to get across rivers, which previously barred them from growing further.
Rapidly growing citied faced a wide variety of problems. The most prominent among these were disease, crime, and tire, all of which sprung up easily in crowded city conditions.
The “new immigrants” came for a variety of reasons. Emigration laws in European cities which were once strict were now lax, regular ships from Europe to America made travel quicker and cheaper. People also came to America during the new immigration to escape persecution and genocide. On top of this letter from friends and family who had already left gave them a glimpse of American life. Also, like the “old immigrants”, the new immigrants moved to the United States in search of greater economic opportunity.
The new immigrants were different from the old immigrants in mainly that most of them stayed in the city instead of leaving the farm. This was mainly because most farmland had been taken, but also because there was a large supply of jobs in cities, as well as ethnic neighborhoods which were more like “the old country”.
The new immigrants face a lot of problems. The first was nativism. Nativism was a prejudice against immigrants by native-born Americans, for reasons like race, religion, and economic concerns. However they also faced the tusk of finding a job, paying for funerals, and they often fell on tough times, this is what bosses helped them with
Nativists said that their impetus was economic concern. However, often they were also prejudiced against certain races and religions. Nativist pressure caused Congress to restrict immigration in 1882 they barred convicts, the insane, and person living on charity from entering. In 1885 Congress forbade American companies from bringing in skilled foreign workers under contract. In 1896 Congressed passed a bill requiring immigrants to pass a literacy test, however President Cleveland vetoed it saying willingness to work was what muttered, not literacy.
Advertising grew rapidly during the late 1800’s because it was now required to create a demand for year product. This was because, unlike before, supply now exceeded demand. Advertisers used methods such as testimonials from “satisfied customers”, often the case was that advertisements were downright lies.
Education became a matter of concern in the late 1800’s for a variety of reasons. Some people thought that it would help immigrants integrate into American Society and help them to better understand American Government. Others thought that it would help settle differences between ethnic groups. Also, industries were looking for more skilled workers.
Leisure time became more important during the late 1800’s because the middle-class started to have space time and excess money. Cities offered such leisure-time pursuits as libraries, orchestras, museums, parks, and theaters.
Critical Thinking Skills
Advertising can create demand for a product; this is because even just seeing a name a lot can make you think of it, therefore creating demand. A modern example of this is when someone is thirsty they think of “Gatorade, the thirst quencher.”
I think that by saying this Sullivan meant that buildings should be lace designed according to their purpose. For example residential building in a city takes a tall form because that is far more efficient.
The size and location of American cities would be greatly different if industrialization had never occurred. Cities could be small, because there wouldn’t be as many jobs to support people, and there would be more cities in “random” places because people wouldn’t settle in places that were convenient to industry, but rather places that geographically beautiful and/or convenient.