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Chapter 1 Review 								Joe Puccio

Key Terms
Cultural diffusion

Places To Locate

Reviewing the Facts
The largest of the migrations to North America came from Asia about 12,000 years go, but it is possible that some came from times as early as 40,000 years ago. 
It’s possible that North American climate changed too rapidly for large game animals to adapt, and it’s also possible that the Paleo-Indians depletion of the game exceeded the game’s ability to replenish, also resulting in extinction.   
As is likely with many of the integral leaps of human history, the discovery of seed germination under certain circumstances was an accidental observation. This discovery changed daily life in that it allowed more passive gathering of food, resulting in a substantial increase in leisure time. 
The mother culture of Mesoamerica was the Olmec civilization; it’s major accomplishments were religious centers and glyphic writing. 
Other civilizations that developed in Mesoamerica and the Andes include: the Mayas, the Aztecs, the Incas, the Hohokam, and the Anasazi. 
Some of the cultures north of Mexico that were influenced by Mesoamerican culture include: The Apache, the Comanche, and many others in the Southwest/southeast. 
Elaborate burial mounds were the most distinctive feature of the Hopewell culture. The most distinctive feature of the Mississippian culture are also burial mounds. 
They felt that they needed to live in harmony with the earth, and anything that hurt the earth hurt them. 
The Europeans’ attitude and technology destroyed the hunting-gathering ways of the Native-Americans. 
 Europeans prevailed over the Native-Americans because of their superior numbers and superior technology.

Critical Thinking Skills

I think that Chief Seattle meant that we must respect the earth as we are more its property than it is our property. We grossly neglect this advice as we deforest, burn coal, and dismiss the salience of the Earth’s health in order to excessively industrialize. It would be an incomprehensible disaster for the world to end up like Easter Island. 
This leads us to assume that they believed in an afterlife because there would be no reason to waste those resources if they didn’t believe they would be used. 
In the modern era, I think Television is an exemplary instance of this phenomenon. Another good example would be the internet. The argument can be made that any knowledge that is prevalent was made so by cultural diffusion. 
 The following are the main points from “Contact from Across the Oceans?” 
 Was it possible that transoceanic diffusion took place? 
If it transoceanic diffusion did take place, did it have a pervasive effect?
Diffusionist's say that it happened and show large stone heads as evidence. 
I think that small pox greatly influenced the Native American’s view of the Europeans. It would be absurd to think the Native American’s opinion of the Europeans would not be negatively affected as their arrival brought disease that killed the majority of the population in the affected areas. 
American-Indians were quite effective at adapting to their environment because American Indians were able to live in the variegated climates of different locations in North America.