• Introduce Anonymous
⁃ Born out of /b/ board of 4chan
⁃ Genetic ties to memes, as was its father 4chan
⁃ Name from the idea that “Anonymous” 4chan posters were just one person
• Early Anonymous history
⁃ Messing with Habbo hotel, very childish ways
⁃ But in response to apparent racism
⁃ Went after neo-Nazi Hal Turner
⁃ Pizza’d, DDoS’d, ran him out of business
⁃ Realizing their numbers could really do something
• Everything changed with Project Chanology
⁃ Much larger opponent
⁃ In-person protests (over 9,000)
⁃ Influx of Hacktivists made the core group uncomfortable. Epilepsy fiasco
• DoSing PayPal, Amazon, Mastercard, against Tunisia and Egyptian gov, Sony, etc
• Relates to “Networked Individual”
⁃ Willing Hacktivist numbers may have not achieved critical mass until relatively recently, making Anonymous possible
• Astra Taylor’s Debt Collective
⁃ Very similar to Anonymous’ opposition to the elite colluding behind closed doors, like the government and PayPal for instance regarding Wikileaks, and how the people need to stand up and say something’s not right.
• Pew Report and Tor
⁃ I did my report on Post-Snowden, which really made massive paranoia and end-to-end encryption necessary. The result of Snowden really popularized Anonymity tools as they were seen as more necessary with a global adversary: Tor, Tails OS.
• Six Degrees of Separation
⁃ Interestingly, some methods of key transmission may be based on 6 degrees (really the interconnectedness of humans). An example is PGP, where you can verify the identify of one person based on other people whom you trust’s verification of their identity.
⁃ Memes are really the common language of Anonymous, being born out of /b/.
• The Medium is the message
⁃ Anonymous argues that the unfiltered Internet is important for democracy, although it’s important to note that most Anons were likely brought up in western ideology.
• Digital Cosmopolitans:
⁃ Anonymous’ most recent Hacktivism has interestingly meant involvement in issues that are outside of one’s own culture. For instance, Tunisia and Egypt.