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Weber’s Law - the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).

Proactive Interference -  Old information interferes with new information.

Retroactive Interference - New information interferes with old information.

Availabiltiy Heuristic - estimating the likelihood of events based on their av ailability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.

Representativeness Heuristic - judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.

Client Centered Therapy - a method of therapy where patients are not asked leading questions or given proposed treatments.  Patients are virtually responsible for fixing their own problems.

Humanistic Perspective - focuses on the positive attributes of humans.  Human nature is inherently good.

Synesthesia - a condition in which sensations are simultaneously perceived by more than one sense. (A sound in perceived not only by the hearing sense but also by sight.)

Schizophrenia (generalizations)


Avolition - lack of motivation? I mean, “a” is without and “volition” means will or motivation. I think there was actually a certain disorder that had lethargy. You get it.  Yeah, avolition is lack of motivation.  Exactly.

Fixation - the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving. Can’t fixation also be focusing on a certain Psychosexual stage? Yes.  


Paul Ekman - 

Agonist - a drug that acts in place of (mimics) a natural neurotransmitter causing a natural response.

Antagonist - a drug that blocks a natural neurotransmitter eliminating a normal response.

Hypothalamus - in charge of eating, drinking, and body temperature. “maintenance activities” 

Hippocampus - contains declarative or explicit memory. 

Cerebellum - Balance

Thalamus - “Sensory switchboard” (as Alison calls it) - responsible for all senses except smell. 
Procedural Memory - implicit memory. Is it cerebellum? I believe so...but look it up. ok In that case, I think it’s cerebellum, but it’s hard to tell. Cerebellum sounds right to me. We’re going with Cerebellum. 

Episodic Memory - When you remember a specific instance or event...not relating to heightened emotional awareness Part of explicit memory (because ali is very fastidious).

Semantic Memory - It’s the memory of meanings.  Yes, we both used wiki. It’s so easy. It’s so pro. 

Iconic Memory - a momentary sensory memory  of visual stimuli ; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than few tenths of a second.

Flashbulb Memory - a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.

Gestalt Psychology

Gestalt - “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.”  Easy enough. I guess. 

Transduction - the transformation of stimulus energy into neural messages.

Law of Effect - I think that this is the theory that actions followed by punishment will not be repeated and those followed by reward will be. 

Charles Spearman ‘g’

Trichromatic Theory

Retinex Theory

Opponent-Process Theory

Color Constancy


Latent Learning - learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.

DSM-IV has 5 axis? axises? axiis? axes? I don’t know. (Ask Mr. Nelson).  Oh, disease
s are separated into 5 axis? Yeah, I believe so. Guess on any question asking about axis

Reciprocal Determinism - when Ali is mean which makes me mad which makes Ali meaner which makes me more mad. 

Self-Serving Bias - a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.

Absolute Threshold - Minimum level of strength that must be met for something to be perceptible.

Mental Set - is the tendency to approach a problem in a specific way, typically in a way that has worked in the past.

Self-fulfilling Prophecy - Your actions guide you to a preconceived result. 

Jean Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Object permanence, stranger anxiety
Preoperational (2-6 years) Pretend play, egocentrism, language development
Concrete Operational (7-11) Conservation, mathematical transformations
Formal operational (12-Death) Abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning  

Erik Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial Development - I need to relearn this.
Infancy (0-1) Trust vs. Mistrust - Needs met = sense of basic trust
Toddlerhood (1-2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Do things for themselves or doubt themselves
Preschooler (3-5) Initiative vs. Guilt - Carry out plans for feel guity about trying to be independent
Elemtary School (6-Puberty) Competence vs. Inferiority learn the pleasure of applying themselves or feel inferior
Adolescence (Teen years - 20s) Identity vs. Role Confusion - Test roles to define a sense of self or are confused about who they are.
Young Adulthood (20s - Early 40s) Intimacy vs. Isolation - Struggle to gain the capacity for intimate love or feel socially isolated. 
Middle Adulthood (40s - 60s) Generativity vs. Stagnation - Discover a sense of contributing to the world (work, family) or may feel a lack of purpose.
Late Adulthood (60s and up) Integrity vs. Despair - When reflecting on life the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.





Linear Perspective 

Texture Gradient


Motion Parallax

Retinal Disparity

Foveal Vision

Random Facts to Know

-If the ventromedial nucleus in rats is destroyed they will eat more and gain weight.

-Problems associated with deception of participants by researchers are solved via debriefing.

-The perspective most concerned with a patient’s locus of control is the Cognitive.