Weber’s Law - the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount).
Proactive Interference - Old information interferes with new information.
Retroactive Interference - New information interferes with old information.
Availabiltiy Heuristic - estimating the likelihood of events based on their av ailability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
Representativeness Heuristic - judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information.
Client Centered Therapy - a method of therapy where patients are not asked leading questions or given proposed treatments. Patients are virtually responsible for fixing their own problems.
Humanistic Perspective - focuses on the positive attributes of humans. Human nature is inherently good.
Synesthesia - a condition in which sensations are simultaneously perceived by more than one sense. (A sound in perceived not only by the hearing sense but also by sight.)
Avolition - lack of motivation? I mean, “a” is without and “volition” means will or motivation. I think there was actually a certain disorder that had lethargy. You get it. Yeah, avolition is lack of motivation. Exactly.
Fixation - the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving. Can’t fixation also be focusing on a certain Psychosexual stage? Yes.
Paul Ekman -
Agonist - a drug that acts in place of (mimics) a natural neurotransmitter causing a natural response.
Antagonist - a drug that blocks a natural neurotransmitter eliminating a normal response.
Hypothalamus - in charge of eating, drinking, and body temperature. “maintenance activities”
Hippocampus - contains declarative or explicit memory.
Cerebellum - Balance
Thalamus - “Sensory switchboard” (as Alison calls it) - responsible for all senses except smell.
Procedural Memory - implicit memory. Is it cerebellum? I believe so...but look it up. ok In that case, I think it’s cerebellum, but it’s hard to tell. Cerebellum sounds right to me. We’re going with Cerebellum.
Episodic Memory - When you remember a specific instance or event...not relating to heightened emotional awareness Part of explicit memory (because ali is very fastidious).
Semantic Memory - It’s the memory of meanings. Yes, we both used wiki. It’s so easy. It’s so pro.
Iconic Memory - a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli ; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than few tenths of a second.
Flashbulb Memory - a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
Gestalt - “The whole is greater than the sum of the parts.” Easy enough. I guess.
Transduction - the transformation of stimulus energy into neural messages.
Law of Effect - I think that this is the theory that actions followed by punishment will not be repeated and those followed by reward will be.
Charles Spearman ‘g’
Latent Learning - learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it.
DSM-IV has 5 axis? axises? axiis? axes? I don’t know. (Ask Mr. Nelson). Oh, disease
s are separated into 5 axis? Yeah, I believe so. Guess on any question asking about axis
Reciprocal Determinism - when Ali is mean which makes me mad which makes Ali meaner which makes me more mad.
Self-Serving Bias - a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
Absolute Threshold - Minimum level of strength that must be met for something to be perceptible.
Mental Set - is the tendency to approach a problem in a specific way, typically in a way that has worked in the past.
Self-fulfilling Prophecy - Your actions guide you to a preconceived result.
Jean Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor (0-2 years) Object permanence, stranger anxiety
Preoperational (2-6 years) Pretend play, egocentrism, language development
Concrete Operational (7-11) Conservation, mathematical transformations
Formal operational (12-Death) Abstract logic, potential for mature moral reasoning
Erik Erikson’s theory of Psychosocial Development - I need to relearn this.
Infancy (0-1) Trust vs. Mistrust - Needs met = sense of basic trust
Toddlerhood (1-2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt - Do things for themselves or doubt themselves
Preschooler (3-5) Initiative vs. Guilt - Carry out plans for feel guity about trying to be independent
Elemtary School (6-Puberty) Competence vs. Inferiority learn the pleasure of applying themselves or feel inferior
Adolescence (Teen years - 20s) Identity vs. Role Confusion - Test roles to define a sense of self or are confused about who they are.
Young Adulthood (20s - Early 40s) Intimacy vs. Isolation - Struggle to gain the capacity for intimate love or feel socially isolated.
Middle Adulthood (40s - 60s) Generativity vs. Stagnation - Discover a sense of contributing to the world (work, family) or may feel a lack of purpose.
Late Adulthood (60s and up) Integrity vs. Despair - When reflecting on life the older adult may feel a sense of satisfaction or failure.
Random Facts to Know
-If the ventromedial nucleus in rats is destroyed they will eat more and gain weight.
-Problems associated with deception of participants by researchers are solved via debriefing.
-The perspective most concerned with a patient’s locus of control is the Cognitive.