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Western Europe is developing (France/Germany England) Stability Why Stabilizing?
987 Capetians take power in France 

1066 - Norman Invasion William conquers England. Unites, modernizes. 

Trade (language, ideas, religion) increases between France and England. 

Less War, united under the capetians, lead to the development of cities, cultural flowering, rise in literacy, first university. 
Trade guilds, literature.
Population boom. 

All the above: Twelve century renaissance

(1098 - 1291) - main ones

Council of Clairmont  (1095)
Pope Urban II
Reestablishes trade routes & cultural contact with Middle East

Southern Europe

Spain - 1100s - Moors controlling most of Spain 

Reconquista  (1031 - 1492)
Re-conquer. Spain for Christianity. 

Holy - City States are thriving due to trade from the Crusades. 

Greece - Byzantine empire - very weak threatened by Seljuk Turks 

Sub - Saharan Africa

West Africa: Ghana is decline, Mali is on rise. 

Eastern Africa - Axum & Swahili States thrive because of Arab Trade

Spices & cotten from India - East Africa 

Slaves precious metals middle east. 

Middle East, Grain olives. 

Middle East: North Africa

Abbasid Caliphate declining

Seljuk Turks rising in Asia Minor


968 - 1156 - Toltecs Dominant civilization in mesoamerica

Toltecs, are warrior society, city states, sun god, similar to olmecs and mayans 

North America
Mississippian (modern southern Illinois) Cahokia, one of the only cities. 30,000 people. 



Background / Review

Han Dynasty Falls 220 AD

Medieval Period - Decentralized Civil War


Gupta Collapse 550 AD
Ununited, small king 

1022 - Abbasids Conquer part of North India 
Will be under islamic warlords until 1200s 


Classical Era, Heian Period (794 - 1185) 

Japan collapses to civil war, Taira - Minamoto War (1156 - 1185) 

Launches Feudal Era.