Western Europe is developing (France/Germany England) Stability Why Stabilizing?
987 Capetians take power in France
1066 - Norman Invasion William conquers England. Unites, modernizes.
Trade (language, ideas, religion) increases between France and England.
Less War, united under the capetians, lead to the development of cities, cultural flowering, rise in literacy, first university.
Trade guilds, literature.
All the above: Twelve century renaissance
(1098 - 1291) - main ones
Council of Clairmont (1095)
Pope Urban II
Reestablishes trade routes & cultural contact with Middle East
Spain - 1100s - Moors controlling most of Spain
Reconquista (1031 - 1492)
Re-conquer. Spain for Christianity.
Holy - City States are thriving due to trade from the Crusades.
Greece - Byzantine empire - very weak threatened by Seljuk Turks
Sub - Saharan Africa
West Africa: Ghana is decline, Mali is on rise.
Eastern Africa - Axum & Swahili States thrive because of Arab Trade
Spices & cotten from India - East Africa
Slaves precious metals middle east.
Middle East, Grain olives.
Middle East: North Africa
Abbasid Caliphate declining
Seljuk Turks rising in Asia Minor
968 - 1156 - Toltecs Dominant civilization in mesoamerica
Toltecs, are warrior society, city states, sun god, similar to olmecs and mayans
Mississippian (modern southern Illinois) Cahokia, one of the only cities. 30,000 people.
Background / Review
Han Dynasty Falls 220 AD
Medieval Period - Decentralized Civil War
Gupta Collapse 550 AD
Ununited, small king
1022 - Abbasids Conquer part of North India
Will be under islamic warlords until 1200s
Classical Era, Heian Period (794 - 1185)
Japan collapses to civil war, Taira - Minamoto War (1156 - 1185)
Launches Feudal Era.